Multivariant Levels of Interpretations on Selected C a r y ~ s .
SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF G W U A T E STUDIES
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS. DEPARTMENT OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES. CALGARY, ALBERTA
O Rupa Bhattacherjee, 2000
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The objective of this thesis is to investigate the multivariant levels of interpretation within selected CaryZs. The Carygs selected depict Buddha Nature a s it
was understood in t Sntric Buddhism in the area of BengaI. There are three levels of interpretation. The first level is the blatant meaning, and is outlined in the translation section of the songs. The second level is the anuyoga/Mother tgntra meaning. A comparison is made between the interpretations of selected scholars. The final level is the
Mahamudra meaning. This level is inferred fiom various textual sources.
Acknowledgements: First and foremost I would Like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Barber. His patience, support and guidance have led me to where I am today.
I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Hove and Dr. Parmar, for their help and support in matters past and present. Next I would like to thank Carol Solomon and Nandini Abedin. They were my Bengali language guides, and their interest and support is greatly appreciated. My Kends and family have been so considerate. Thank you Ma, Baba, and Rita for believing that I could actually h i s h this. Thank you to Amir Khan, without your computer help, I would still be working on this thesis. To Arif Kotadia, thank you for supporting me, both emotionally and electronically. Thank you to Jason Maharaj, my bouncing board for ideas, and to Monica Baines-Maharaj for being understanding of his constant kidnapping by me. Shane Gannon, thank you for your late night editing and your twenty-four hour support. To Farzana Bhanvani-Kassam, Sonali Majumdar, Arif and
Salima Jarnal-Shariff, my girls (plus man), thank you for your encouragement, support and sympathy. Finally, thank you to Cicely and Dave Kaplan, for being my strength
when I had none left.
I would like to dedicate this work to my fiends and family. Thank you for understanding and being there for me, always.
Transcript of the Carv5caryavini6caa (preserved by the Asiactic Society of [email protected])-
Caryiigiti or Cary~pgda.
Roerich, George: The Blue Annals: parts 1 and 2.
Farrow, G.W and I. Memon;: The Concealed Essence of the Hevaira Tantra: With the Commentarv YogaratnamZlZ.
Dasgutpa, S.B.An Introduction to TSintric Buddhism.
Mojumder, Atindra: The Cqapadas.
Mukherji, Tarapada: The Old Ben~aliLan~uageand Text.
Kvzme, Per: An Antholow of Buddhist Mvstic Songs: A Studv of the CarvEgiti,
Sen, Sukumar: " Old Bengali Texts"; Indian Linguistics.
Shahidullah, Muhammad: Buddhist Mystic S o w s : OIdest Bengali and other Eastern Vernaculars.
Snellgrove, D.L.; The Hevaira Tantra: A Critical History. Vol I and IT.
Dasgupta, S.B.: Obscure Reli.~ous Cults.
Table of Contents Approval ................................................................................. Abstract Acknowledgements ......................... Dedication Abbreviations
.. .:............ 11
............................................................................................. ......................................................iv .......................................................................................... v ...................................................................................... vi I.Introduction .................................................................................................................. 4 IT. Comparative Doctrines.............................. ............................................................... 10 1.Essential ideology ................................................................................................ 10 2.Early Buddhist Schools...................................................................................... 11 3. Tzntric concepts that stem from MahZyHna...................--.. ................. 14 a.Sunyata.............................................................................................................. 15 ..b.Prajna and Upaya.......................................................................................... 17 c.The three kayas: ................................................................................................ 19 4.Vaj rayHna Buddhism ..................................................................................... 20 a; Mantra ................................................................................................................. 23 . b. Mudra ............................................................................................................. 23 c. M q d a l a ............................................................................................................ 25 d .The three higher classes of tHntra: Mahzyoga.......................................... 27 e.Anuyogd Mother TBntra level ...................................................................... 28 . f. Mahamudra ...................................................................................................... 30 g.The three lower tzntras: KriyZiyoga ........................................................... 30 h .The Buddhist Cakras ......................................................................................... 31 i.Consort Practice ................................. ................................................................. 34 III.History of Buddhism in Bengal ............................................................................... 38 1.Socio-economic Background ................................ ..........................................3 8 2.The Rise and fall of Buddhist Dynasties in Bengal ......................................... 41 IV.Defmitions of Buddha Nature ................................................................................ 47 1.The Tathzgatagarbha Theory ........................................................................ 47 a .Definition of f athzgatagarbha...................................................................... 51 b . Tat h~gatagarb ha as already Buddha........................................................... 55 c.Conventional and Higher Truths ...................................................................... 56 2.The Sahaja Theory ............................................................................................... 57 3.Mahasukha............................................................................................................ 58 4.Mahamudra .......................................................................................................... 59 5.The meanings of terms summarized.............................. ..................................... 61 V . SANDHABHASA (twilight language) .............................................................. 62 b
................................................. 131 ................................................................................................ 132 . ............................................................................................. 133 . .................................................. 134 ......................................................... 136 . ............................................................ 136 . .................................................... 136 . ................................................................................................... 137 . .............................................................................................. 137 . .................................................. 139 . ........................... 140 . ........................................................ 140 . ................................................... 140 . . . . . .............................. . . . . . .......... . . 141 ........................................................................................... 142 . ................................................. 144 ............................ 146 . . ............................................................ 146 . .................................................. 147 ................................................................................................... 148 . ............................................................................................ 149 .................................................. 150 ..............................152 . .......................................................................... 152 . .................................................*.152 . ...................................................................................................... 154 . .............................................................................................. 155 . .................................................. 157 ..........VII .............Conclusion .............................. 159 VIII.Bibliography ........................................................................... 165 b Part Two: Textual Studies and translation c.Translations: - d Sandhabhasa: e Mahsmudra depictions in sandhabhS5Z 9.CARYATHIRTY: The Rising Moon a Part one: About the author: Bhusuku b Part Two: Textual Studies and translation c Translations: - d Sandhabha~a: e M a h Z m u d r a depictions in sandhabhHsH 10 CAW.& THRITY-SEVEN: An Experience of the Innate a Part one: About the author: TH~akapZi b Part Two: Textual Studies and translation c Translations: - d . Sandhabhapa: e MahZimudra depictions in s a n d h a bhZsZ 11 CARYATHIRTY-EIGHT: Paddling and towing a boat a Part one: About the author: Saraha. b Part Two: Textual Studies and translation c Translations: - - d. S a n d h y a b h a ~ a : e.M a h Z m u d r a depictions in sandhabhS5H 12. C A R Y ~ THRTY-NINE: A Hapless Householder a About The Author: Saraha b Part Two: Textual Studies and translation b Translation: d S a n d h a b h-a ~- a : e MahZmudra depictions in s a n d h a b h H ~ H
I. Introduction Although Bengal can trace its history as far back as the first millennium before the Common Era, it became a separate region in approximately the eighth century. Located on the eastern side of the south Asian continent, modem maps show it as being bound by the Himslayas in the north, and the Bay of Bengal in the south. The Brahmaputra, Kangsa, SurmS and the Saijuk rivers partition the eastern state of Assam fiom Bengal. The Nzgar, the Barakar and the SuvarnarekhZ rivers respectively, divide Bihar and Orrisa, to the west and south-west of Bengal (Majurndar 1). Its borders once embodied contemporary Bangladesh, and linguistically included some districts of Assam and Bihar.The PBla dynasty was the political power during the establishrnent of Bengal. Fascinatingly, this was also the time that a proto-Bengali vernacular emerged Eom the more commonly used Apabhramea (Moj xiii). It is not generally known that in Bengal Buddhism was greatly supported, however, it has historically provided an environment of growth for this doctrine, both economically and academically. An exceptional example of this is found in the Caryggitis (a collection of Buddhist t B n t ric songs), which are the earliest examples of proto-Bengali vernacular, written circa 1100 CE (PK 5). The manuscript was discovered and investigated by MahEmahopZdhyEya Haraprassd ~ ~ s tinrthe i Darbar Library of Nepal in 1907 (Moj xiii). This collection will form the textual basis for the present study. Previous examinations of this compilation have investigated the information that described the lifestyle of the peopIe in the songs during that era. Often scholars examined the hidden meaning that is incorporated within the lyrics. These meanings depict more
than just a lifestyle; they represent the spiritual beliefs and rituals of the practitioners. The
anuyoga tgntra understmding is the most common, and is the level discussed for the most part by Dasgupta, Per Kvaerne, Mukherji, and Mojumdar. Anuyoga is the nongradual approach towards reaching awakenment.The primordial state of being (Buddha Nature) is discovered amongst all other qualities, and for those who understand its esoteric implications it is known as tEntra (Longchepa 3). Yet this is not the only level of meaning apparent in the songs. Both the supreme yoga, h o w n in Tibetan as Dzogchen, and its sister, Mahgmudra, are believed to be the purest and most total state of realizing bodhicitta. In fact, it is often considered to be synonymous with bodhicitta (Longchepa 2). This path entails unsurpassed instructions on the most essential and profound esoteric presentation; therefor it is the most direct path of experiencing awakenrnent. An investigation of the Anuyoga meaning as well inference into the meaning of the supreme yoga of selected Caryzs will be discussed in a latter part of this paper. The onset of this investigation will discuss Vajraygna and some of its key
principles, the establishment of Buddhism in Bengal, and the factors contributing to the rise of Vajrayana. A few of the key terms used to describe the phenomena investigated
in this thesis will be delineated. The legends of the Siddhacaryas that composed these songs will also be presented in brief. As the main objective of this study is to investigate Buddha Nature as it is presented in the Caryagitis, selected comparisons of the transliterated scripts, as well as the editorial suggestions of others will be presented in this thesis. Furthermore, the Anuyoga meanings offered by previous academics will be presented followed by possible supreme yoga interpretations. Due to the restriction upon the parameters of this thesis, many intriguing and pertinent topics will not be discussed,
such as the blatant meanings of the songs. This paper will endeavor to briefly outline the essential topics and focus mainly on the selected CaryZis and how they demonstrate the various levels of understanding and portrayal of Buddha Nature within tzntra. The aforementioned elements are the common fimdamental paints that can be found in all schools of Buddhism. The intention of this shldy is to understand Buddha Nature as it is addressed in the Cary~gitis, within the multivariant layers of meaning in the tsntric setting. The
multivariant layers are threefold. The first is the blatant meaning, which is inherently explained. This level does not address the concept of Buddha Nature, per se, but is vital for understanding the broader scope of these songs. The next level is Anuyoga. This is
the most commonly depicted dimension. In fact, this is the area of concentration that most scholars have examined the CarySs in.The £kamework of Anuyoga brings forth the aspect of perfection of practice, which has as its goal, awakenment. It does so through a non-gradual approach. As such, the Anuyoga levels provide instructions towards awakenment. Unlike the previous level, Anuyoga provides a schema by which one can interpret the CaryZs. It is this practice that leads to the realization of Buddha Nature. The final level of meaning is MahZmudra, which is also referred to as Atiyoga by the Nyingma tradition. This is a level that is not discussed by most scholars in regards to the Cary~s.Where as the previously mentioned Anuyoga is often equated with ritual, Mah~mudrais natural, or is success without effort. Such success is achieved through
realizing the ordinary mind. When the practitioner achieves this ordinary, or innate and pure mind, they will realize non-discrimination and attain awakenment. It is through this non-discriminatory mind that one can realize Buddha Nature.
In order to understand Buddha Nature within these three levels, a mdtivariant methodology is utilized. Three different methods were used to establish the findings of this paper. The first method used is historical analysis. Within this analysis, I have looked at the development of VajrayZna doctrine. By performing a comparative study of
Mahzygna philosophy and its influence on Vajrayzna, the origin and evolution of tantric ideology is explained. Furthermore, the socio-economic and political influence on the rise of Vajraysna in the region of Bengai is investigated. This is important, as the CaryZgitis originate in this region. The historical analysis provides a background for understanding the concepts used in the three previously mentioned levels of meaning. The analytical investigation of Vajraysna is the second method utilized. The focus upon key concepts that appear within the selected CaryHs provides bdamental understanding of the multivariant levels of interpretation within the songs. In order to explore the key concepts, a comparison of multiple scholars who are preeminent in the field was used. Analysis is also used to describe the innate potential that is Buddha Nature, as it appears in M a h s y a a Literature, and its connected to the idioms used to describe this same potential within tgntric literature. This method proved to be quite usefbl as it tied the philosophy in with the Caryzs. Lastly, there is the linguistic comparison. To begin, I selected CaryEs that blatantly used key words that described Buddha Nature. These key words are described in a later part of this paper. Next, I compared selected translations of the Caryss and determined their accuracy based on their common elements. Finally, I examined the CaryBs and looked for linguistic play on words, such as homonyms, which would
illuminate the Anuyoga and MahZmudra levels of meanings. This linguistic method was
quite helphl in that it not only revealed the secret or hidden meaning which leads to the understanding of Buddha Nature, but it demonstrated the Bengali understanding of
Buddha Nature and how they chose to linguistically describe it. Using these three methodologies, the levels of meanings within the C a r y ~were s indeed illuminated. The blatant level was not significantlyexpanded upon, as its meaning is obvious.
Below is a chart that illustrates the various methods used to illuminate the objectives of this thesis.
Historical Analytical Self-evident Self-evident Displayed the Investigated psychological concepts such as kamework of the Slinyatz, upaya, public. karuna, prajii8, Illustrated the and how they social setting (i.e. result in Buddha The political, Nature. ideological and economic situation at that time). Doctrinal beliefs were displayed. Such subjects as mantra, mudra, mandala, consort practices, cakras and so forth. Displayed why An understanding there is a need to of the relation of keep tantric SiinyatFLto practices secret. n i r v e a is established. The social mindset of the public is Also, non-duality necessary for the and its relation to understanding of realizing Buddha the development Nature is of schools and determinedother ideologies Furthermore, the that lead to this notions of "the school of thought. natural way" and the sealing action that leads to the realization of Buddha Nature are elucidated.
Linguistic Self-evident Examined the subtleties and hidden meanings of the words. Tried to understand the hidden meaning as an initiate would.
The hidden meanings are deeper here than the Anuyoga meanings. PhiIosophical discussion is diff~cultbecause of its non-dual nature. A lack of philosophy and the presence of inference present a barrier to the adequate expression of its meaning.
11. Comparative Doctrines 1. Essential ideology
A foundationd conviction of Buddhism is best exemplified by the Four Noble
Truths. Primarily, there is duwha (bitterness), which leads to suffering (dumhaduhkharn). All aspects of Life can engender suffering, such as illness, old age
and death. The craving for permanence results in the resistance to most change, which leads to the grasping of an objectfidea that one least desires to have altered. Thus, suffering is produced. However, once the cause of the craving is extinguished, the practitioner can achieve awakening. By following the Buddhist doctrine, the practitioner could break out of this cycle of birth, death and re-birth (samsea) and realize nirvana. Buddhists believe that all sentient beings will eventually be able to break fiee fkom samsiira. Reality, as it is defined by the common consensus, is the misconception that there is permanence in all things. All things are dependently co-originated. A classic illustration of this perception is displayed in the example of the chariot wheel. Just as the chariot wheel is composed of smaller parts that create the whole (i.e. spokes, cogs and so forth), so is all of existence. This is particularly poignant to the idea of a self. The self is composed of countless facets grouped under the paiica skandha (five categories); not one part exists independently. Nor are the parts unchanging £torn one moment to the next, The traditional Hindu view of the self holds the Zitman to be unchanging, and each incarnation is superimposed on top of the other. For example, the protagonist, in some folk literature, has lived more than one Lifetime at a time. Buddhist doctrine, on the contrary, believes the individuai to be more like a flowing river. The river may have the same name; however, all the elements are constantly changing, and is
really not the same water from one minute to the next. Thus the notion o f anztman (egoless) is proposed- It is unawareness of impermanence that causes the grasping at the notion of Sitman as being a permanent concept, which in turn causes suffering. Existence in samsgra is largely determined by karma (a force that brings forth results due to past decisions and actions). One can accumulate good karma, and thereby gain access to the realm of the devas (gods and demi-gods). However, there is d w h a
in the realm of the devas as well, and once the good karma is exhausted, rebirth into the lower realms is the consequence. By attaining niwEna the practitioner is able to break out of the cycle of s a m s a a entirely. As a result of realizing the impermanence of
atman (ego), the practitioner can break free from the cycle of sarhsara. The above points exemplify some of the basic principle behind Buddhist philosophy. These points merely sketch some of the underlying principle of Buddhism; however, a more thorough investigation of Vajray~nawill be conducted subsequently. How these fbndamental points are understood within the VajrayZna Caryggitis wi11 also be discussed. 2. Early Buddhist Schools The foundational texts of Buddha's teachings have always been the Agamas (his words), and thus the concern after his parinirvsna was the preservation of their instructions according to their traditions. At the time of the first council, the teachings were classified as the tripitakas (the three collection/baskets). These three divisions consisted of the Vinaya (monastic rules), the Siitras (Buddha's discourse) and the Abhidharma Mztyka (the more concise teachings later expanded into the Abhidharma texts). It became apparent that the intricate nature of the teachings of the M g t ~ k awhich ,
consisted of the Buddha's imperative instructions (such as the nature of existence, mind, and causality), needed to be cultivated further- This variance of views led to divisions in the philosophy. s&riputra,the most intelligent of Buddha's disciples, is accredited with
. readings were reinvestigated and being the first to investigate the M ~ t y k aHis reinterpreted over time, and used to support h t h e r turnings of the Dhanna Wheel (Cook 228)-
There are many branches that are classified under the heading of Hinayaa (smaller vehicle). The early history of Buddhism is mostly discerned from the accounts of Chinese pilgrims, such as Fa-hien (399-414 CE), Hsuan-tsang (629-645 CE) and I-tsing (671-695 CE), as well as the Pali sources. The foIlowing accounts of the early schools will be based upon these accounts. This will be supplemented with records from stiipas, monasteries, pillars and other inscriptions. There are numerous schools that will remain unmentioned due to the bounded parameters of this thesis. Only those traditions that influenced Buddhism in Bengal will be summarized. From the afore mentioned chronicles, it can be determined that one of the earliest schools to develop was the Mahzszrbghika (great assembly) tradition. An inscription on a pillar dates followers in Mat hurE as early as 120 B.C.E. The MahZs&mghikashad extended as far northwest as what is now modem Afghanistan, and they also find representation in cave temples near modem day Murnbai (formerly h o w n as Bombay). One of their strongest centers was located in Magadha, and f?om here they spread to Orrisa and into Andhra. In the seventh century, at a time when the MahssiLmghikas were in decline, Hsuan-tsang and I-tsing noted that there were still several sub-divisions of this doctrine. In Magadha and Eastern India, Hsuan-tsang noted twenty-four
monasteries, each house approximately 1100 monks. I-tsing noted many more monasteries in Western, Northern and Southern India (Cook 243-244).
The Sthavira school could be found in Pataliputra, and travelling westward to V i d S and SaEci. In Saiici they were known as Malasthaviras and as Haimavatas.
During the reign of ASoka, their doctrine spread southwards into MaharH~tra,through Andhra and down to K S c i and ~ rLaIikH. i The Sthaviras adopted this area to be their major centre, as it was here that they were the most prominent. They had many monasteries in Pg!aliputra, VErHnasi, KauSBrnbi, and the region north of Mathurii. Hsiian-tsang notes that there were monasteries present in Bengal (then Samaiata) and Orissa (then Kalinga) also. Hsiian-tsang listed thirty Sthavira monasteries with a total of two thousand bhiksus (monks) in Bengal alone. h Omsa, a more conservative denomination of Mahaygna, named by Hsiian-tsang as "Mah~yana-sthavira", housed more than five hundred b hiksus. I-tsing records the existence of several Sthavira monasteries in Magadha and areas fkther east during his travels in the late seventh century. However, by that time, the South Indian schools were predominantly Sthavira (Cook 244-245).
The SarvZst ivzdins (those who hold that everything exists) established their first major center in M a t h u r ~ during Agoka's rule and remained popular throughout the Mauryan Dynasty. They traveled as far northwest as Gandhgra and Kashrnir and developed their doctrine in isolation fiom the major centers. According to the records of I-tsing, who himself was a SarvZstivZidan Master, there are four major divisions of this doctrine: Miilasarvgstiv~da,Dharmaguptaka, Mahilgsaka, and KZyapiya. The later three were practiced in their isolated communities in OddiyHna, Kundfizz,and
Kusthzna, by the seventh century. All four of these schools spread eastward, and of all the four schools, the Dharmaguptaka became the most popular. I-tsing declares that all of the Buddhist centers in the north central region of India were Sarvzstivzdan. In the east part of India, Sarvgstivzdins existed in harmony in with other Buddhist traditions, especially at the famous Buddhist University, Nzlandit, Each division of this school was successhl in spreading its doctrine, however, only the Mfilasa~ZistivZidinswere able to survive up until the twelfth century. The Vinaya for this division still endures in Tibet (Cook 235-241).
3. Tzntric concepts that stem from M a h Z y Z n a The Mah5tySna (the greater vehicle) schooIs chose to interpret the ~ M a t ~ kanother a
way (Cook 228). Denouncing the goal of Arhatship as being too exclusive, and therefore returning to what they considered were the Buddha's real teachings, Mahgysna unrestrictedly embraced all sentient beings as having the potential for becoming awakened. It developed the notion of bodhisattvas; compassionate beings that were near complete awakening yet remained in the realm of s a k s a r a (the cycle of birth, death and re-birth), to help others become awakened. The doctrine of Mahzysna was universally appealing. Its practice of compassion towards all beings, and the ideology of providing help for those who are struggling with attaining awakenment, allowed many who could not embrace the doctrine before, to adopt this spirituality. Mahgysna's tenets embraced the path of actualization through various practices and attitudes. The objectives of the HinayZna approach were too demanding for those who wished to experience awakening yet were unable to divert enough time away fkom their responsibilities to comply with the obligations of such a narrowly defined set of practices. Also, Mahzyzna
ultimately became too fecused on the "theoretical and metaphysical." The effort that was needed for people to realize the awakened state became superfluous. Thus a chasm between practitioners and scholars arose. The community called for a path towards spiritual growth with fewer obstacles, and vajrayZina arose out of the efforts of the samgha (monastic community) and the laity to meet these demands (Robertson and
Black 167-168). In response to this chasm, Vajrayzna made the move back towards the original emphasis on practice, and the hope of attaining awakenment in one lifetime (Blofeld 46). VajrayEna was not wholly independent fiom Mahsyana ,as it appropriated its ideology e o m the latter's doctrine. The main differentiation lies in praxis. The philosophy of Ma hZySna is too diverse to h l l y describe, however, in the limited space of this thesis. The key Mah&y~na/VajrayZina concepts of SfinyatH, upaya, karuqz, and the trikgya which appear in the CaryHs and are explicated below. a. sfinyats
~ f i n ~(emptiness) a t ~ is an essential part of Mahgyzna philosophy. As is argued by the renowned Buddhist logician NEgZirjuna, there is nothing that can be posited to exit or not exist. For as long as the mind cognizes in terms of dualism it is bonded to the sams&ic realm by false desires and beliefs. The importance of the notion of SEnyatH is
that it aids in the realization of anatman, which is a quintessential concept in Buddhist doctrine (Evens-Wentz 1-4). Often it is equated with nirvana, as attaining nirvana is a matter of understanding the nature of Siinyat a (Bhattacharyya, Buddhist Esoterism 32) The significance of this lies in the realization that all dharmas are changing, and therefore are empty (Kalupahana 180-187).
Being that all dharmas are empty, the Madhyamaka view holds that all things are therefore empty of inherent existence. They have no essence and are thereby only refstive. Inherent existence is the misconception that all things are causally independent, which results in a grasping of objects and ideas. Nothing can have inherent existence because all things are pratityasamutpzda (causally dependent) (Williams 60).Thus all & m a s exist as interdependent entities. Consequently, StinyatE can be viewed as a
mental construct imputed by the mind. Yet iiinyatz itself cannot be perceived as paramzrthasatya (ultimate truth), for then the concept of emptiness is taken as inherent existence, and that is incorrect*Even SunyatE is empty, as it too is effected by pratityasamutpZda. Therefore it would be accurate to understand this notion as BiinyatZStinyat (the emptiness of emptiness) (Williams 60-63). This concept was adopted into the V a j r a y ~ n adoctrine. There are two kinds of obstruction to the cognition of Bfinyata. The first is klegsvarana (the obstruction of inferior suffering), and the second is jfieygvarana (the obstruction hiding transcendental knowledge) (Bhattacharyya, Buddhist Esoterism 36). The initial obstruction can be removed by realizing that the feelings of attachment occur because of the false belief in a
permanent stman, which would result in the cognition of the nature of "voidness". Secondly, by constant meditation upon Nairztma (the destroyer of the notion of ego), the practitioner will perceive the self as not being real. The second obstruction is more difficult to remove. It is the hindrance caused by the quest for the purest form of truth, and again the practitioner should meditate upon NairBtma, thereby removing the veil of obstruction (Bhattacharyya, Buddhist Esoterism 36-37).
~ i i n ~isaant essential ~ conviction in the CaryEs. This concept is one of the a ,it is one of the crucial major conjunctions between Vajraysna and M a h ~ y ~ nas aspects that lead to the realization of awakenment. However, this is not the only Mahsyzna notion encountered. Consort practices are adopted as a means of actualizing
the union of Mahzyzna doctrinal elements. Thus the notions of prajE5i and upzya were incorporated so that an explicit connection between practice and theology could be actualized. b. Prajii5 and UpSya
From the Mahzyana view, Sfinyats symbolized by the female principles generates prajfil (higher wisdom). This wisdodfemale principle guides the male principle, which symbolizes upgya, the active force of karun2i (Snellgrove, IndoTibetan 225). UpZya, the "means" or "skilfulness in helping others" towards awakenment, and karun& the "compassion" that is practiced towards all sentient beings
(IT 100; PK 34). From the Mahsysna viewpoint, prajdH is a mental event that results f?om analysis and investigation, it is the state of awareness that cognizes giinyata. There are two ways of coming to know prajfi& one way is through intellectual, deep, meditative analysis. The other is the metaphysical experience of meditative absorption, where the concentration is on the results of this analysis. This particular type is both non-conceptual and non-dual. Essentially it is the wisdom that supersedes the wisdom of the world (Williams 44-45). Mahsywa views upzya as a relative truth. Teachings are only appropriate in the context in which they are given, just as the Buddha's teachings were. For example, it is
believed that the Buddha adapted the doctrine to the level of the listeners so that more would benefit. It is an essential notion in regards to NlahEySina ethics, for it explains compassionate motivation. An example of this is the legend of how the Buddha in a previous life killed a man. It was the only way that he could prevent the man from killing five hundred people. Which would result in the man falling into the lowest of the hell realms in his next birth. Although this act was against the moral code, it was an act of compassion, accompanied by wisdom (Williams 144-145). Vajray~na,however, utilizes these concepts in another manner. A rudimentary belief in tsntra is the union of the female and the male principle.
Together the wisdom/female and skilled compassionate/male are the "one" universal principle, that is t a t h l t a or suchness (IT 100; PK 34). One should note that essentially both the principles, male and female, are considered the same. IT explains that male practitioners have these two qualities that prompt them to practice benevolent activities. Dasgupta avers that tsntric practitioners must first realize the true intention of the union of prajria and upZya. Both genders must actualize that they are representatives of upZya and prajnl, and that their physical, mental and intellectual union is the catalyst that
induces the experience of the highest truth. This union is the centrepiece of some tZntric practices. The fundamental principles of the.Buddha, dharma and samgha are the condition of cit t a (mind) that shines through in the union of Siinyata and k a r ~(IT s 103). These principles briefly exemplify the essential nature of female practitioners in Vajraylna doctrine. They practice t z n t r a at their initiative and were limited only by
their own goals and abilities.
c. The Three K5ya.s:
The triksya or three Buddha bodies, is what Mahzyzna holds out as the Buddha essence manifesting. These three bodies are the Dharma-ksya, the Sambhoga-ksya,
and the N i r m ~ n a - k ~ yThe a . Dharma-kZya is often interpreted as the Primordial body, the ultimate, the true, and the formless body. It is the perpetual Buddha Absolute (EvansWentz 3-4). In the Shentong ideology, the Dharma-kiiya is elemental, as it does not arise fiom causation or conditions. It is therefore not subject to the samsaric cycle. One illusive complication to this argument is the idea that the conditions of compassion,
wisdom and power contradict the idea that this kzya is foundational. In fact it can have these qualities and still remain uncompounded. It does not arise firom karma or kleSa (mental defilements), nor does it suffer or die (Hookham page 44). The Sambhoga-
ksya is the phenomenal appearance of bodhi. It is often portrayed in literature as being the realm where the Buddhas, in their superhuman forms, dweIl and meditate. This is the existence of Buddha on a heavenly plane. The NirmBqa-kgya is the physical body of incarnation, where the Buddha exists on Earth. In this body the Buddha Absolute is associated with earthly activities (Evans-Wentz 3-4). These last two k ~ y a sare the fomkgyas and are intended to help potential practitioners find the path to awakenment
(Hookham 243). Each of these three ksyas is associated with the Buddhahood in unique ways. The contribution that they make to the fhrther understanding of Buddha Nature will be investigated in the section discussing the terminology of the Caryzs. These three bodies form one of the basic teachings in the ~rirn&l&dev~sirphan~da Siitra, amongst others, which is a key siitra for the tathzgatagarbha doctrine.
4. Vaj rayiina Buddhism
The origin of Vajraysna Buddhism, as is mentioned above, stems from Mahaysna, as do the practices. The t s n t r a s that form the base for VajraySna are logical developments that stem fkom the DarSanic sfitra genre of MahEyZna literature. As the tantras were treated as authoritative works to whomever they were taught, they were commonly believed to be the authentic words of the Buddha (Snellgrove, IndoTibetan 118). Tzntric practitioners considered the MahZySna siitra approach as the slow and steady path for gaining awakenment, as opposed to the quick, although risky, method of the tantras, which could result in awakenment in this lifetime. From this view, Mahsyana could be divided into two classifications; P ~ r a m i t ~ n a (the y a Systems of Perfection), and Mantranaya (the System of Formulas). Vajraygna is simply another name for Mantranaya. Followers of this system believed in its superiority by reason of the singleness of meaning, thereby freeing the practitioner &om confusion. Also, its multiple methods and low degree of monastic practice produces a greater base of appeal than conventional PSiramit EtyBna methods (Snellgrove, hdo-Tibetan 118). Customarily, the discipleship of esoteric Buddhism believed that tSntra originated f?om the teachings of the Buddha. It is difficult to historically connect ~ ~ k ~ a mBuddha's u n i name with the conventional records of the advent of tsntra. Snellgrove states that the Tibetan historian Bu-ston, who compiled all of the Buddhist cannons in Tibetan, adhered to the teachings of the three turnings of the wheel (the f i s t wheel is H i n a y ~ n a the , second is the development of MahEyZna and the third is the rise
of Vajraysna). Snellgrove suggests that Tibetan historians would have recorded Indian history as the Indian scholars would have. There are no official records of the origins of
tiintra in Indian historical documents. Snellgrove hypothesises that the incorporation of the origin of tZntra with the teachings of Buddha, were incorporated at a later date. Therefore, there are no official records of the incorporation o f t Sntra into the Buddhist cannons. One example of the attempt at tying tantra and its teachings with the conventional teachings of the Buddha is displayed in the Sarva-tathZva-saeraha Siitra. This siitra describes ~ ~ k ~ a m u n(also i ' s referred to as Vairocana in this text) speech on the top of Mount Meru after he gained enlightenment through the Vajra way
n i his speech, the Buddhas of the ten (Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan 120). As s ~ k ~ a r n ugave directions interrupted him. He was told that he could not simpIy become a perfect Buddha by samzdhi (inner composure) alone. The ten Buddhas then took ~ ~ k y a m u n i ' s mind-body; leaving the physical body by the Nairafijana River, they helped him gain perfect enlightenment and marked him with the five formulas of self-consecration. After he returned to his physical body, the Iegend rejoins the traditional telling with the battle with Miira and continues along the same line as the more commonly agreed upon legend.
This account attempts to connect the origins of tantra with the earlier beliefs (Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan 120). This same method of adaptation is utilized in regards to the texts created for the anuttarayoga-tantra. Snellgrove states that h y a m u n i in this category is seldom named specifically. However, he is meant to be a symbolic representation of all Buddhas. Snellgrove further explains that even though ~ d c ~ a r n u n i did preach strict celibacy for the earlier tradition of Buddhism, one could argue that his life in marriage and with a harem could have leaded him to awakenment (Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan 121). Regardless of the manner, the rise of t a n t r a is connected with earlier
accounts, and it is evident that this connection became accepted in many regions of India, including Bengal. S.C Banejee believes that Buddhist tantra in Bengal may have originated as early as the seventh century CE. Since many of the original Bengali manuscripts have been lost or destroyed, and only the Tibetan and Chinese translations remain, this is a difficult theory to accurately verify (Banerjee 77). The Caryss have most definitely been preserved in the Tibetan Tanjur. However, Per Kvaerne adds that there is aIso a Mongolian translation of this text entitled: Yabudal-un dayulal-un sang-un tailburi, Vol.
49 folio 292b-345% from the Tibetan source (PK 3). Although tantra did not originate
in Bengal, the populace adopted this form enthusiastically(Banerjee 219). When the Gupta dynasty began its' rule around 340-380 C.E., with Samudragupta, he appointed the Buddhist master Vasubhandu to be one of his own religious instructors. Thereby he officially welcomed Buddhism to the Bengal region (Cook 330). The popular concepts of this doctrine appealed to Hindus and Buddhists alike. Although many similarities
between both styles of practice can be found, each took the theories in separate directions. Some of the key Buddhist t5ntric principles are outlined below, in order to provide m e r insight to the multiple meanings of the selected Carygs. Mantra, mudrE and
mandalas are significant concepts within VajrayZna. Seed syllables, symbolic hand
gestures and body postures, play and essential role in understanding the selected Caryas. For a better understanding of the songs, a brief description of the t Bntric classes as well
as the cakras will be examined. This will provide the foundational understanding for the
description of consort practices within tsntra; another important item outlined in our text.
a. Mantra Wayman's research presents mantra as j nana (non-dual wisdom), which belongs to the minds of all Buddhas and should be kept secret fkom those who are unworthy. Literally, "man-" is Mahapraj5%the great insight that is connected with SSnyatB. ''Tra"
is the protector of the practitioner's mind from wordy thought (Wayman, Buddhist
Tantras 64-65). By engaging both upsya and praj6%in a non-dualistic manner, the
recitation of mantras protects the mind. This generates prajfia of 5finyatS and karunz in the practitioner's stream of consciousness (Wayman, Buddhist Tantras 65). The CaryZis use this principle in a more concise manner. The modes of mantra employed in the Carygs commonly are the bija mantras. Together these monosyllabic utterances
represent various concepts. For example, in [email protected] nine the word "evap" contains two very important bija syllables, 'e' and 'vam'. These are the symbols of the great Bliss of
Consecration (for further discussion, see the section on sandhabhZisB in CaryH nine).
Once these bija mantras are employed, the practitioner will find that they have come closer to SiinyatSi (the 'ultimate void') (IT 64). b. MudrZ
Customarily, fingers and hand gestures characterise mudr4 which in part, aids with the achievement of awakenment. This includes the position of Limbs and posture, vital breath and implements utilized during rituals. Dasgupta explains that rnudra; in connection with the mantra-element has a very deep meaning in the sadhana of tZntric practices. Just as mantra is the epitome of esoteric sounds, mudrS. demonstrates
the secret seals (i.e. gestures, posture, and consorts) involved in the ssdhanz. There are as many as one hundred and fifty eight depictions of the Buddhas in various postures,
with diverse finger and hand gestures, or holding various ritual objects. All of these positions have the common goal of aiding in achieving h a 1 purification and liberation fiom samszra (IT 70). Blofeld explains that part of the exercise of the mudra is to make these symbolic gestures while mentally creating the objective that they symbolize (87). He states that it is the powers of the practitioner's mind that evoke what these mystical forces represent. While rnudrg literally means "freedom fkom bondage", in tiintric traditions, it is often translated as "seal" (Guenther, Ecstatic Spontaneiw 18). "Seal" is treated, not as the static physical act, rather, as the dynamic act of "sealing", which becomes the focus. The dynamic element lies in the connection with the one making the seal. In the tantric Buddhist case this would be either the authentic self, who is the psycho~ogicaldimension, or the inner mentor, which is the personal dimension (Guenther, Ecstatic S~ontaneity17). Guenther also notes that the term "mudrE" is a feminine noun, thereby emphasising the importance of the female in the consort practice. Wayman supports this and notes that there is utilization of mudrg concurrent with "woman" (Wayman, Guhvasamgiat Zntra 263)-
In this sense, there are four types of mudras; Karma-mudr~(the action seal), Dharma-mudra (the Instructing Seai, and it is also interchangeable with the term jfiZnamudrE), Mahzmudra (the great seal) and Samaya-rnudrg (the symbolic seal)
(Wayman, Buddhist Tantras 21). Guenther explains that Dharma-mudrz is the awareness or understanding that is beyond the rational mind. In this sense Dharma-
mudra can be seen as Jiigna-mudra (Guenther, Ecstatic Spontaneitv 19). The Samayamudra is a tool used to achieve awakenment, for example, using the image of Vairocana
as a focus in meditation and then reaching non-duality with that Buddha (Wayman, Buddhist Tantras 21). The two most common references to mudrz within the CaryEs are to Mahsrnudrs (see below in Buddha Nature), and Karma-mudrs. Karma-mudrs is the symbolic physical representation of the feminine element. The presence of the female consort is not simply physical, she is illustrative of higher ideals and practices. For instance, the woman may be depicted outwardly as being fiom a lower class or caste. Yet the depth of meaning that she actually conveys cannot be cognized firom this outward appearance. She may be the idiom for significant tantric meanings. CaryB fifteen exemplifies this type of representation. The first h e of the CaryE reads; "In the essential analysis of self-realisation, that which is without character
cannot be characterised." Kvzrne notes that "self-realization" can be achieved through the union of the vajra and the lotus. The vajra delineates the male organ and the lotus is commonly adopted to describe the female reproductive organ. The significance of the union of these two elements will be fbrther elucidated in the section on consort practice. At the time of consort practice, the significance of m u d 6 is the utilization of it as
another manner of expressing Buddha Nature. c. Mandala
The most familiar meaning of mandala conjures up images of the traditional
drawings of the domains of the Buddhas that Tibetan monks create on the floor with sand. However, there is far more to these designs than drawing an attractive arrangement.
In Sanskrit, mandala denotes "circle", or the idea of something in a circular
arrangement. The symbolic meaning behind this word, as suggested by Snellgrove, takes its root in the magical arts, as the circle represents the separation of a sacred area from mundane life (Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan 199). Mandalas are usually drawn as an outer square with four gates, the main one facing the east. The circles within this square represent the domain of the Buddhas. Also, it is common to see a larger square drawn within a larger, all encompassing circle. Snellgrove explains that the design originates
f?om an aerial view of the traditional design of Hindu temples. Temple designs have since then progressed. However, some temples of this design can still be found up in the Himalayas and in Nepal (Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan 199). This two-dimensional depiction of sacred buildings portrays the most sacred spot in the centre of the design. The outer ring borders on the polluted world, or conversely, it can represent the outer periphery of the universe. Thereby the practitioner can psychologically expand their hearts to the limits of the universe while in their meditations (Blofeld 103). The teachings of the mandala go beyond equating it with nirvana (which, in the mandala, is the inner most recess), and samsara (the outer circles of the mandala). Snellgrove also mentions in the Hevaira Tgntra, that bodhicitta, being samszra (in the aspect of existence), is the bindu (starting point) of the mandala, which contains the "ideal representation of
samszra" (SBVT 26). A perfect example of this is the Sambhogaksya; as it is the phenomenal appearance of bodhi. Those who become masters are able to understand the subtlety of the meaning of this sacred drawing. The symbolism also represents the micro and macrocosms of the human situation and that of the cosmos (Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan 200).
An example of the usage of locution to represent a mandala within the C a r y a is found again in CaryL nine. 'Evam' has two very important bijas (seed syllables), 'e' and 'vam'. During the Gupta era, 'e' and 'vam' were depicted as two h-iangles, 'e' pointed downwards and 'vam' pointed upwards. This image was a commonly found one
in mandalas, as 'e' and 'valp' are symbols for wisdom and means, and the mandala created by the union ofthese two bijas depicts a state of great bliss. This important example is fbrther elucidated in Caryl nine, under the s a n d h a b h z ~section l of CaryZ nine. d. The three higher classes of tantra: MahHyoga
There are three higher classes of t z n t r a within VajrayZna; the Nyingma tradition categorises the levels as Mahayoga (the lowest level of tzntric practice of the three), Anuyoga and Atiyoga. The Kargyud tradition equates Atiyoga with MahSmudrZ, and splits M a h g o g a and Anuyoga into two divisions of Anuyoga, seen as Mother tZntra (the higher) and Father tzntra respectively. However, other systems of classification are also available. As the Kargyud school considered the CarySs as an important teaching, their classification system will be used. The AnuyogdFather t s n t r a understanding is the most common, and is the level discussed for the most part by Dasgupta, Per K v ~ r n eMukherji, , and Mojumdar. The anuyogamather tantra level is the gradual approach to the goal of awakenment. The very being of the primordial state cannot be correctly understood by locution, therefor the nonverbal path towards this objective is known as tzntra (Lipman and Peterson 2). Anuyoga/Father tantra is based on the development stage of yoga. At this level of realization and of cognition of the "indivisibility" of the two truths (conventional truth
and truth in the highest sense), one may attain awakenment while meditating upon phenomenal existence as the mandalas of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. Training in this method of yoga falls into two categories: with without characteristics and characteristics.
In yoga without characteristics, one contemplates suchness and ultimate nature ( T u l h Thondup Rinpoche 37). The yoga with characteristics is firrther subdivided into two stages: the &st focuses upon the union of the three doors, the body, speech and mind. The main emphasis with this visualisation of the mandala, is the contemplation of ianyatH (the great
emptiness), t a t h B t a (suchness), of illusory compassion, and of the cause (the syllables), this is called the development stage (TuUu Thondup Rinpoche 38). The second stage is the perfection stage. Here one contemplates the primordial wisdom of great bliss through transcending the upper and lower entrances in accordance with the path of s k i h l means. Thus the impurities of the mind are refined, and awakenment may be attained in the current life, or the intermediate life (Tulku Thondup Rinpoche 38). e. Anuyoga/ Mother Tzntra level
The Anuyoga/ Mother tiintra level is the non-gradual approach used towards reaching awakenment. The primordial state of being (i.e. Buddha Name) is discovered amongst all other qualities. Lipman and Peterson state that this is the domain of Vairocana (the cosmic Buddha). For those who understand the esoteric implications of this approach, it is lcnown as t l n t r a . For those who do not h o w it as such, b o w it as the Siitras and the Agamas (Lipman and Peterson 3 ) . These two scholars determine that the Siitras and the Agamas are the teachings of the Buddha in N i r r n ~ n a k ~ y(in a the physical form), where they were taught as tBntra the bodhisattvas in Sambhogakzya
(in the astro form). Tulku Thondup Rinpoche categorizes this as the second leveI of achievement. Anuyogal Mother tantra ascertains that all the appearance of phenomenal existence are the father (Samantabhadra), the macdala of the deities. The emptiness nature is the mother. It is fkee from all extremes (Samantabhadrii), thus creating the mandala of the primordial suchness (Tulku Thondup Rinpoche 39). Essentially, this maqdala is the union of upaya and praj84 which is one of the crucial mandalas used
in tHntric practices. In Anuyogd Mother tsntra, the emphasis is no longer on the development stage. Instead, the focus falls on the perfection stage. This is the perfection of the yoga of channels, air and essence, as well as the wisdom of the state of Supreme Bliss. The two major paths of training in this stage of yogic practice are the path of skilhl means and the path of Iiberation. The path of skilful means trains the practitioner to gain the innate wisdom through the usage of the means of the upper entrance. Which are the four (crown, throat, heart and navel) or six (plus the genital o g a n and the usqisa) cakras of the body. One may even
gain this wisdom though the means of the lower entrance, which is the union of the practitioner with their consort. This last method is able to bring the Supreme Bliss instantly (Tulku Thondup Rinpoche 40). The path of liberation is partitioned into two aspects, meditation on the meaning, and meditation on the signs. Meditation on the meaning is the contemplation of Stinyat H. By mediating upon the sign, one immediately visualizes the mandala of the Buddhas, by uttering the mantra, and achieves clarity, like a fish jumping out of the water (Tullcu Thondup Rinpoche 40).
f. MahZrnudra The term "Mah&mudra"has a number of meanings in the sense of the teaching that is superior to Anuyogal Mother tsntra, and it is believed to be the purest and most total state of realizing bodhicitta. In fact, it is considered as synonymous with bodhicitta (Lipman and Peterson 2). It is the path of directly experiencing awakenment. This entails unsurpassed instructions on the most essential, profound esoteric argument (Lipman and Peterson 2). The mind resides in the three Buddha bodies, and through the union of the Sahaja (innate), and spontaneous accomplishment, Mahsmudra can equate sams-a with ninrEna, without discrimination, thereby achieving the Supreme Bliss ( T u h
Thondup Rinpoche 41-43). A more thorough explanation of Mahamudra is given in the section discussing the terms used in the CaryZs to depict Buddha Nature. g. The three lower tsntras: KriySyoga
Tzntra is basically split into the higher t Bntras (section (d)) and the lower tsntras. The three lower tgntras are KriyZiyoga, CaryZyoga (or UpEyayoga), and YogatSntra. The t l n t r a s of K r i y g o g a realize the phenomena of aggregates, and elements that appear in the relative level which are subject to purification. This is basically the beginning method of purification. One strives to lead a pure life style and
aim to meditate for the ultimate goal of awakenment. At this level, the practitioner strives to understand through the vehicle of the benevolence of the Buddhas. It emphasises ritual I
actions as dictated by the t Ent ras in hopes of achieving the life of a knowledge- holder (Tullcu Thondup Rinpoche 15-18). Carysyoga is considered a "dual t ant ra", as its' practices are similar to that of Kriyzyoga, yet its' doctrine is similar to Y o g a t ~ n t r a . CaryEyoga emphasises both mental cleansing and physical cleanliness. Yogatantra
emphasises mental purification and uses physical cleanliness as a secondary support. It is interesting to note that in the process of meditation for this stage, there are five actualizations that lead to the innate self. The five actualizations are: 1) the seat of the Iotus and moon (and sun), the seed and cause of the Buddha realm, 2) syllables of speech which are the seeds of auspicious teachings, 3) signs of the mind (such as the vajra and
the jewel), which are the seeds of suspiciousness that remain constant through-out time, 4) the wheel of the mandala, which represent the masters of this teaching, 5 ) and finally
the primordial wisdom of the Buddhas. Each of these actualizations is found in the CaryiLs, and will be discussed as they appear in the translations ( T u h Thondup Rinpoche 18-20).
h. The Buddhist Cakras The perception of the nerve centres and focal points of psychic energy within the body is an essential part of meditation in V a j r a y ~ n aThe . body contains three nadis (nerves or arteries). The centre nzdi is called the avadhfiti and it originates at the top of the head and ends at the base of the sexuaI organ. The left nadi is LalanZ, also known as
KLi or idas. This nerve corresponds with prajiiiL and it wraps itself around the avadhtiti and exits out of the left nostril. The right nerve is Rasans, otherwise known as Kali or
pingala, and it corresponds with upZya. This nSidi wraps around the avadhiiti and exits out of the right nostril. They also represent the union of prajiia and upBya. At the base of the sexual organ, the three ngdis come together, and here resides the bodhicitta in its relative condition as gukra (semen), also known as the sun, At the head of the practitioner, resides the bodhicitta in its in its absolute condition. Here it is also known as
the moon. When the yogin and his consort meet, upsya and praj5Z meet and create
candL1i (fire). The female practitioner is the bija 'A', thus she is the symbol of the union
of the bliss. She is envisioned as being the element that moves up through the ngdis and the c k a s and melts the moon at the top of the head. This melted bodhicitta then flows down the central nerve, and through the calmas of the body. Once it reaches the lowest cakra it joins 'HAM' it become
'w', which is the state of innate bliss (SHVT 36).
Another example of bija syllables appears as "evam" (see Caryg nine, section (e): sandhabhssz). Through the middle of these three nzdis, running along the avadhfiti, are the cakras. The cakras vary in number, generally there are four or five. At the head, heart, throat and navel are lotuses with a various number of petals that represent the *minor vessels. The head is the svabhzvikzya, which corresponds with the Sahajznanda (the innate joy); it is also known as the MahZsukhakEya (the Supreme joy). The throat is the Sambhogak~ya, which corresponds with the Viramgnanda (the joy of cessation), or Arsga (the absence of passion). The heart is the Dharmakgya, which corresponds with the Paramsnada, (the perfect joy), which is rZga (passion). Finally, the navel is the Nirrnznaksya, which corresponds with ananda (Joy), which is the middle state (SHVT 34-3 9). There are numerous variances upon this number.
The K ~ l a c a k r aTZntra presents a fifth c a h a for the Vajra body. The MahZsukha-cakra (the centre of great bliss) is situated beneath the top of the skull and just above the brain (the crown of the head). The etymology of this name indicates that it is considered the foundation of bliss. It is where the white bodhicitta resides, and therefore it is the centre of great bliss. This centre is attributed as having a width of oneeighth of an inch, is multicoloured (white, green, red and black) and has the shape of a
triangle in its centre. In this centre, the three ngdis are tied into a knot. From here the channels branch out into groups of four, eight, and so forth, making the thirty-two subsidiary or branch channels (Geshe Lharampa Ngawang Dhargyey 113-116). The Sambhoga-cakra is the centre of enjoyment. This is located at the throat and is red in colour. The centre of this calaa is round, and again the three nzdis make a lcnot at this junction. This is known as the centre of enjoyment because this is where the sensation of the six tastes takes place (sour, sweet, bitter, salty, astringent and pungent) (Geshe Lharampa Ngawang Dhargyey 113-117). The Dharma-cakra is the centre of the dharma,
and is positioned in the heart. It appears white in colour and the centre is triangular shaped. Here the two side nHdis knot the avadhatl three times. The principle instrument used to practice dharma is the mind, which abides in the heart. Life sustaining energy resides in the heart, and is the Link between the vital life force and the body. The Nirmsna-cakra is the centre of emanation, and can be found in the navel. Like the Mahsssukha-cakra, this is a multicoloured cakra with a round centre. The £ire of the psychic heart is positioned here. This gastric fire separates nutrients of food snd drink f?om waste, thus sustaining the body. The last cakra is the Miilzdhzra, or the blissguarding centre. It is placed at the very base or root of the genital area and the centre is triangular in shape and red in colour. Closely related to the four joys, it guards the bodhicitta when it reaches the very tip of the genital organ. It dispels and retains when necessary (Geshe Lharampa Ngawang Dhargyey 113-118). Snellgrove addresses the issue of whether or not these cakras are perceived as imagined or real centres of the body. He states that, just as the mandalas represent a higher state of understanding, similarly the c a b s exist on a higher plane. However, they
too are finally dissolved in the realization of Buddha Nature (SHVT 33 n.3). The upward and downward movement of the bodhicitta that occurs during the union of yogin and his
consort represent the emanation of the innate joy in the head and the navel. There are fhdamental variations of this occurrence, and therefor there is no one methodology. Yet the intention is identical in each case. There is a need to emphasis the identity of the microcosm within the macrocosm by the symbolism of the cakras within the body. This is very similar to the symbolism behind the mandalas (SHVT 37).
i. Consort Practice Both Hindu and Buddhist tantra regard female practitioners as a hdamental
energy towards the goal of the reaLization of bodhicitta wayman, Buddhist Tantras 167). Wayman explains that the concept of prajiiZ is very important, as it carries the
connotation of upZiya, and each is an integral component in the attainment of awakening. However, prajiil is often buried under the mire of impurities, such as lust, hatred and delusion. Wayman states that monks who renounce all of these types of defilements are actually realizing their feminine side by the modification of their environment. He uses the metaphor of seeds to describe the hidden prajfi8 within all beings. Until prajiiE is nurtured, it conceals its nature. Thus, the idea of consort practice centralizes around the
notion of uniting prajiia and upZya in order to recreate the whole.
N. N. Bhattachayya describes his understanding of this process union. He states that prajiis resides in the nirmsnakba cakra. Here prajii8 is known as Candsli. When
Candzli and the Yogin begin the practice, she blazes to the point of vibrant joy h o w n as visayznanda, which is material in character. She then moves the joy upward towards the DharmakZya calaa. Here the joy explodes into ParamZnada, which still has a tinge of
materiality. Next the joys moves up towards the SambhogakBya cakra, where the ensuingjoy erupts into ViramBnanda, which is of a transcendental nature. Once she reaches the highest pleasure, at the Mahzsukhakgya cakra, she becomes Nairiitma. This is the stage of Sahajananda, perfect bliss, and it is at this stage where the bodhicitta is realized (Bhattacharyya, Tantric R e l i . ~ o page n 295). Generally, prajiiz is described as a woman of extremely low caste, such as a dorpbi (washerwoman). She resides outside the city and only those who are without
prejudice, those who have given up their egoism and have broken away fiorn societal expectations, can be with her. She is frequently described as the amoral initiator of the yogin, and for this role she is ideal. She is the one who, as Wayman so articulately states, ushers man into the world; therefore it only seems suitable that she should be the one to lead him to awakenment. This description more appropriately describes the inner faculty of prajii8 than as a dissolute outcaste. The dombi is the insight that initiates the yogin into knowledge, for she is the interior power to awakenment (Wayman, Buddhist Tantras 164-171).
N.N. Bhattacharyya in his book; Historv of the TBntric Religion, deduces that
M a h ~ y s n acompromised itself in order to gain popularity with lay practitioners. Dasgupta poshllates that the early version of Buddhism was much too rigorous for mass appeal. The laypeople needed ceremonies and rituals in order to relate with Buddhism. By incorporating itself with the cults, rituals, and customs of the locals, various tribal practices in Buddhism arose (Bhattacharyya, Historv of the Tantric Religion 223). The local doctrines of many tribes included reverence for the Mother goddess, whose rituals may include sexual yogic practices. The common consensus among scholars is that the
sex rites of these tribal systems made its way into Buddhist systems and thus arose 225)- This Buddhist tzntric practice (Bhattachqya History of the Tantric Reli.~on integration of the feminine aspect into Buddhism at a time when other sects of Buddhism were still teaching that women Iacked spiritual potential was tantamount to the culture, such as in Bengal. The focus of this study is on the union of practitioners and how awakenment is achieved in this manner. The essential ideology of tzntric observance is to practice a non-dual life-style (Shaw 142). The involvement of a partner as an aid in tgntric meditation can be very advantageous. The additional energy is conducive to the heightening and intensity of meditative powers. The sexual fluids are believed to have a special potency that can nourish the yogin. Therefore the practitioners visualize the reabsorbing or the spreading of this bliss giving nectar through the body (Shaw 158).
The additional meditative power accelerates the inner yoga of both practitioners, thus adding power to the psychic body. The body of the yogin consists of knots and c&%, and the power added from an additional practitioner can unblock the nerve channels (Shaw 147). Gesbe Kelsang Gyatso comments that it is necessary for the yogin to meditate with an actual consort, in order to open up the heart to the most profound level (126). Tzntric union is intimacy without attachment. It is passion that is fiee fiom desire, conventional lust, and ego. There is a degree of detachment that is utilized to dissolve ego, yet there is still intimacy in the relationship. There is a spiritual interdependence, which is necessary when the most intimate point of their union creates the Great Bliss. As
the aim is to become liberated simultaneously, a partnership could last for any number of years (Shaw 168). However, this type of union is not often socially acceptable. The practices were considered immoral by society. This societaI view, as well as the practitioner's own needs for privacy, led to the secrecy of the movement. Yet, Buddhism during the time
that these songs were written was growing in popularity. The smaller independent kingdoms accepted this doctrine into their laity. This foundation paved the way for the larger empires such as the Gupta and the Pala dynasties, which were very supportive of Buddhism. The following section discusses the roles that the political situation on Bengal played on the growth and development of Buddhism.
HI.History of Buddhism in Bengal 1. Socio-economic Background
There is not an absoIute date for the initial entrance and acceptance of Buddhism
in Bengal. The economic status of the state at the time of the rise of Buddhism is better documented, and provides us with a comprehensible picture of the circumstances that permitted the popularization of this doctrine within Bengal. It is known that, as a consequence of the advent of the Iron Age, an advance in agricultural tools was achieved,
and the resulting increase in productivity induced trade of surplus goods (Sengupta 28). A notable district for commerce, Bengal encountered a variety of people, each bringing the uniqueness of their own background to the Iand. This, in conjunction with the stability of the kingdom, and the growth of the urban class, induced a growth in the popularity of Buddhism. Some scholars attribute this increase in popularity of Buddhism in Bengal to the close poLitica1 connection that Bihar had with Bengal. Buddhism in Bihar was already prominent, being that the awakenment of the Buddha occurred in Bodhgayz. With the growth of the middle cIass and an increase in spiritual unrest, Buddhism became an enticing possibility for many people (Sergupta 5). Even so, Bihari politics could not have been the sole influence for the rise of Buddhism. There is mention of the kingdom of the Pundravardhana, a municipality in Bengal, cited in an unnamed Sanslcrit rendition of
the Vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules) (Majumdar, History of Benga14 11). This is significant because it shows that Bengal was also a witness to Buddha's teachings before his parinirvsna. There are many references made of VangalAnga (Bengal), one of which is in a long list of countries that were converted to Buddhism as was recorded by NBg&rjunikonda(Warder 320; Majurndar, Histow of Benna1412). Despite this
recognition, Bengal was not regarded as one of the major centres for the teachings of Theravsda. This was made obvious by its omission fkom the list of major areas where
the instructors of Theravsda travelled eom, towards Ceylon, for the consecration of the
M a h a t Gpa as erected by King Dutt h a g ~ m a n iin circa 118-94 BCE (Warder 320). Bengali Buddhism became more predominant once it began to follow the practice of Mahzyzna; this will be discussed fiuther in the section discussing the evolution of Buddhism in Bengal.
In Bengal, the location of Buddhist communities lay along the trade routes. Anusua Sengupta mentions in her research that the earLier phase of Buddhism established communities in geographic clusters along the alluvial regions of Bengal. Regions such as Bogra, Rajshahi, Maldah, Murshidabad, the 24 Puranas and Midnapur show archaeological evidence of early Buddhist communities. As Buddhism began to spread, the caravan routes that ran through such regions as Tripura, Cornilla, Noakhali, Barisal and the Chittagong hill region witnessed the growth of many Buddhist communities and temples. Small kingdoms dotted the land, and an increasing number of these small monarchies adopted Buddhism. The dynastic history of Bengal during this time is very skeletal. Power struggles between the kingdoms of Magadha and Bengal caused fluctuations of the boarders and
ruling parties. Bengal was the dominant power for many years. However, this was reversed when B i m b i s e a began his rule, which was concurrent with the time of the , is a place of teachings of Buddha. His capital in Magadha was R a j a g ~ h awhich significance in Buddhist history. After making strong political alliances with other states, BimbisBra embarked on a mission to reclaim the control of Magadha from the ruler of
both states, Brahrnadatta (Prasad 10-12). Bimbis&.raYs heirs ruled the kingdom for a couple of generations, and they changed the capital to Pztaliputra. This was the time of Buddha and his teachings found support in the kingdoms of Magadha and Bengal. A few from the series of independent monarchs that followed Bimbisiira were mentioned in
Buddhist texts (Prasad 10). Through out all of this political turmoil, Buddhism in the greater Bengal area continued to prosper (Prasad 10-13). Eventually, Chandragupta Maurya founded the first empire in India. This led to the rule of the illustrious Emperor ASoka, under whose rule Buddhism flourished. After Asoka, the Mauryan dynasty began its decay. The details of the time period between the fall of the Mauryan and the rise of the Gupta dynasty are very sparse (Prasad 10- 13). About three hundred years before the Common Era, the Gupta dynasty was beginning to take over the area known then as Anga. These regents were great benefactors to the promotion of Buddhism. They donated land to monasteries, and h d e d the building of stiipas and universities. There was also a rise in scholarship at this time, and many international scholars flocked to this area and its' renowned universities. This sustenance was continued when the P ~ l dynasty a took over rule. The PBlas propagated Buddhism beyond the influence of the Guptas. The PZlas were politically strong, and were able to conquer many neighbouring districts. Thus the doctrine of Buddhism spread to these newly vanquished areas. In Bengal, these two dynasties allowed for a variety of spiritual expressions, and the political histories of these dynasties are discussed in a latter part of this paper.
Further documentation of Buddhism in Bengal appears in the accounts of the Tibetan LBmS TEranBtha. His writings encompassed the growth of Buddhism in his lifetime,
around the 16th century CE. In this work appears a reference to Bhangala, which Majumdar takes to mean the general area of southern and eastern Bengal @stow of Benaal 182). Both Buddhism and trade prospered in part due to the support of the leaders of the land. The Gupta and the P I l a dynasty both propagated Buddhism, which developing into various doctrines during this period. 2. The Rise and fall of Buddhist Dynasties in Bengal
The Gupta era was one in which the evidence of Buddhist afnuence was better recorded. It had its foundations with ~ r Gupta, i who ruled over what was then the small kingdom of Magadha, in the fourth century of the Common Era. He himself did not possess any considerable politicai power, nor did his son, Ghatotkacha. It was Ghatotkacha's son, Chandragupta, who began what is now known as the Gupta Dynasty. R.C. Majurndar elucidates the accomplishments of Chandragupta of the Gupta
Empire in, The Historv of India. It would seem that the details of Chandragupta's rule are not very clear. What is known, however, is that he did succeed in expanding the borders of his empire as far west as Allghgbzd (in what is now Uttar Pradesh) (Majumdar, Histow of India 23 1). His son, Samudragupta, was renowned as being a
great military genius; he too expanded the borders of his district. Although the Guptas themselves were followers of the Brzhmanic doctrine, Samudragupta was very tolerant of other convictions. For instance, when he was approached.by the Buddhist King of Ceylon to erect a monastery for his subjects that travelled to BodhgayZ, he graciously gave permission to carry out the task. At the end of his reign, Chandragupta's son, Chandragupta II, took over the dynasty.
It was during this period that the Chinese monk explorer, Fa-hsian, came to this area of India (ca. fifth century CE). Majumdar states that during Fa-hsian's travels he reported that he was very impressed with the area. There were light taxes, the administration was very liberal, cruel punishments that were normally so abundant at this time had been abolished, and rules such as passports and registration documentation were unknown. Commerce prospered as trade in crafts increased, and arts and architecture flourished. This era also witnessed the rejuvenation of intellectual and religious debates (Majumdar, Histow of India 236). Sengupta states, that historically, this period witnessed the disintegration of the unification of North India into small regions, and beheld the transition from the classical period of Indian history to that of the medieval period AAer the fall of the Gupta Empire, Bengal divided into two main kingdoms, that of Gauda
(northern and western Bengal) and the Vanga (eastern and southern Bengal) (Sengupta 33). There were numerous smaller kingdoms as well. The progress of Buddhism, as it
made its way through Bengal, can be found in the records of some Chinese monks that travelled through India. Hsiian Tsang was one such monk. In his journal, he recorded his travels through the ' X i e @a)-lo-na-su-fa-ta-na (Karnasuvarna) country'' (Sengupta 33). Furthermore, Hsuan Tsang spoke of more than ten monasteries among which was the R a k t a m ~ i t t k aMahavihsra. According to his records, this was during the reign of ~ a ~ ~ narchaeological k a ; evidence places this monastery in the Murshidabad region of
Bengal. Buddhism continued to exist in [email protected], but once the PZilas began their reign, the philosophy made yet another modification to its doctrine. The common consensus is that Vajraysna Buddhism was able to establish itself during the rule of the Palas (mid eighth century). This dynasty arose after a century of
tumult in Bengal. It was a time when the misery of the people hnally made them realize that they needed a singular authority to unite themselves again (Majumdar, Historv of Ben~al96).This idea of smaller kingdoms uniting in the interest of a national cause was extraordinary. Majumdar states his admiration in the fact that the smaller kingdoms elected the popular hero Gopsla to be the elected sovereign in their bloodless revolution (Majumdar, Histow of Ben.eal97). There is a very quaint account of this historical event
in L l m l T a a n a t ha's history, much more legendary than historical. Even so, it is an important recording of this event. What is interesting about the election of Gopala is that the PBlas are recorded as being Buddhist practitioners. It is not known if this was an adopted practice or whether or not he was born a Buddhist. Even so, his spiritual practices certainly display the acceptance and increase in popularity of Buddhism in Bengal. Gopala, during his rule, was accredited to have kept a peaceful kingdom, defeating those who opposed him. He founded a vihara (monastery) at N ~ l a n as d ~well as having established many religious schools (Majurndar, Histow of B e n ~ a101-103). l
Gopala was succeeded by his son, D h a r m a p ~ l a in , circa 770 CE (Majumdar, History of Bengal 104). Dharmapzla greatly expanded the kingdom that he inherited fkom his father. Majumdar describes the events since DharmapZlaYsaccession to the throne. D h a r m a p ~ l aeventually claimed the areas up to the Indus valley on the west, the Himllayas on the north, and beyond Narbads in the south (Majumdar, Histow of B e n ~ a 11 l 1). It was a time of unparalleled Imperial glory for Bengal. The renowned Vikramasila v i h e a was founded during his rule. He was also credited with building the v i h a a at Odantapuri. T s r a n a t h a accredits the construction of this vihlra to Devapzla, who is the next to reign. Even though Dharrnapgla was a patron of the Buddhist
doctrine, he was not adverse to the Brahman philosophies. He granted land to rise temples, as well as followed the rules prescribed for caste ( k ~ t y (warrior)) a (Majumdar, Histow of B e n ~ a 101, l 116). He had no bias when it came to religion, as is demonstrated
in his retention of his brahmanical minister, a position passed down through the family for generations. After D h a r m a p ~ l a ' srule was the regimen of Devapala (circa. 8 10-850
CE). He M e r expanded the kingdom. D e v a p ~ l acontinued to support both the Brahmans and the Buddhists. He was a great military leader, and after his death, those who inherited the PHla Empire soon lead it to decline in land and power (Majumdar, Historv of B e n d 116). Majumdar mainly discusses Devapzla's many military attributes, and states simply that he was a patron of Buddhism, and supported the community. After the death of Devapzla, there may have been a dispute between branches of the family. This, in addition to the slow crumbling of the kingdom to other rulers, began the d o d l of the Palas. One important factor for Buddhism is that there
was contact with Tibet at this time. Tibet became a unified country during the rule of Srong Tsan in circa 600 CE. It was during the suzerainty of his son, Srong-Tsan Gampo, that the country became swayed by Buddhist influence. He adopted the style of NHgari used at the time in India, and had many masters come up to Tibet and transcribe Buddhist literature into Tibetan. It seems that Srong-Tsan Garnpo was able to conquer Assam and Nepal. The latter remained a vassal state for almost two hundred years. His grandson, Ki-li-pa-pu (650-679
CE), was the next to take the throne. He extended the borders of Tibet into what Majumdar terms as Central India, which most likely consisted of Bihar and Bengal. However, in 702, India and Nepal revolted against Tibet. Nepal was subdued, and
although Central India was kee from paying regular tribute, they were apparently not completely released Erom Tibet's govern. There is record of a delegation from the area of Central India petitioning China for aid against Tibet (Majumdar, Historv of Bengal9 193). It was during the rule of the PBlas that Tibet's ambitions were finally kept in check. Although, Majumdar does propose that the reason that a Buddhist ruler was put on the throne in India was due to Tibetan political influence (Majumdar' History of BenaaI 12511.2). By the time that REijyapLla became sovereign, Bengal was fairing quite poorly,
as Tibet usurped the P Ela Empire's powers. Majumdar claims that REjyapala simply became the ornamentd head of the Tibetan monarchy (Majumdar, History of Bennal 133). Some scholars argue that this is not the same R ~ j y a p ~of l athe Psla dynasty. These arguments stem mainly fiom the findings of the more recently discovered copperplated grant inscribed on the hdrB plate. This put a twist on the belief traditionally held by scholars as the inscription on the plate suggested that the split that occurs in the kingdom between the two PBla familial branches, actually occurred after R ~ j y a p ~ l a ' s death. This seems to be historically inaccurate. Those who do not accept this view ascribe to the belief that Rzjyap~lawas a Tibetan chief who worked under the reign of the PHlas. He may have taken advantage of the weakened state of the PBla empire and set up
a small principality of his own (Majumdar, Historv of Beneal 134). In either case, the main point here is that there was a great deal of trade going on between Bengal and Tibet, which very Likely led to an exchange of ideas (Majurndar, History of [email protected] 134 n. 1). The struggle for power over Bengal continued for several more generations, ending with Govindapzla in 1155 CE (according to the account of TgranBt ha, this date should be
7 15 CE) (Majumdar, Historv of Bennd 174-177). Eventually the P B l a dynasty fell in
favour of the Senas, which Iead under Brahmanic rule,
1 ' .Definitions of Buddha Nature
One of the early genres of MahEyEna literature to develop was the Buddha Nature sfitras. This notion was never to become a school of its own, for the nature of the topic itself could not comply with any specific dogma. Even so, the general acceptance of this idea allowed it to prevail. Zn the tradition of the first siitra to be "published" in this genre, the innate potential/awakenment remains consistent. Many Mahgyzna stitras describe this innate potentid as tathggatagarbha, and in VajrayZna, the appellations used are Mahzsukha, Mahzmudra and Sahaja- The significance of these usages is displayed in the perception of the h a 1 goal as it pertains to the practice. As for understanding Buddha Nature as a potential, Per Kvzme explains that, in traditional MahZyZna doctrine, bodhicitta (the resolution to acquire bodhi) is attained by promotion
through the dasabhumi (ten stages), which signifies the purification of the mind (PK 30). In this light, Buddha Nature is understood as the possibility for awakenment, as well
as a method for the practitioner to remove contamination from the mind. Each of these idioms is described below, beginning with tathggatagarbha, in order to provide M e r background towards the understanding of their employment in the Cary Es.
1. The Tathzgatagarbha Theory It is important to know how the idea of tat hzgatagarbha was understood by the Buddhist community of the time. There are two texts that contend for the position of I Sctra and the being the first to discuss this ideology, the S ~ MIlHdevisizphanHda
T a t h ~ a a t a a a r b h aSfitra. A.W. Barber in his exposition on the technical definition of tathagatagarbha in the T a t h z ~ a t a ~ a r b hSiitra a determines that this siitra seems to
be the earlier of the two. This is deduced by an examination of its level of doctrinal sophistication and literary merit. The tathzgatagarbha, as presented in this stitra, is fully formed, pure item that is surrounded by an adventurous casing of defilements. William Grosnick comments in his reading of the Tat hapatagarbha Siitra that the majority of similes in this text portray something very precious, valuable, or noble contained within something horrid and vile. In the majority of the examples cited by Barber, the casing does not effect the tathggatagarbha, but only obscures it from view. The t a t hagatagarbha is complete, and is not a potential to be developed, for it is like the Buddha himself (Barber 7). It is surrounded by the kleSas of greed, desire, anger and stupidity. These kleSas are said to reside in the body, and are the degrading actions that bind us to samsgra . However, they only conceal the tat hzgatagarbha, they do not
effect it. Therefore, once these kleSas are removed, Buddha Nature is revealed (Barber 13-14). Diana Paul in her dissertation offers an inference as to the possible rise of this notion. She asserts that Mahsyzna literature came mostly from South India, around the Andha region ca. 100 BCE to 200 CE (Paul 9). Paul believes that the tathzgatagarbha philosophy may have found its proto-type in this region f?om the ideas of the intrinsically
pure mind and dharma-nature of the Mah~sgmghikaschool (Paull3). She bases this deduction on the appearance of the ~rimBlBdev~ Siitra (435 CE) in the anthology of the forty-nine assemblies (the Rat nakfit a (ca. 706-7 13 CE)) (Paul 12). The ~ r i m ~ l ~ d e v i
Siitra was most Likely included in the anthology because it addressed the notion of
gtinyata. It is associated with the Praiiiap~ramit a, and as she believes that these stitras and the Ratnakiita originated in the Andha region, she concludes that the SrirnZl~devi
may have come fiorn this area as well. Conversely, many other scholars believe the PraifEpZiramit~originated from north-western Zndia (Paul 12). Alex and Hideko Wayman in The Lion's Roar of Queen SrirnB1B. address the idea of the intrinsically pure mind. They place the dochine in the hands of the early Mahasanghikans who specifically believed that; "...consciousness is intrinsically pure and defiled by adventitious defilement's, and that there is a substratum consciousness". Furthermore, the Waymans quote the Mahavastu Vinaya in regards to the Buddha's mother giving birth to an amara-garbha (immortal embryo): Today, 0 queen, you will give birth to a good youth (sukumEra) of immortal embryo, who destroys old age and illness, celebrated and beneficial in heaven and on earth, a benefactor of gods and men (Wayman, Alex and Hideko The Lion's Roar 42-43). This quote intends to display the antiquity of the ideology of the tathzgatagarbha. This notion of something valuable hidden under a layer of defilement is a common theme in various other siitras, and will subsequently be discussed in another section of this paper.
Part of the tathzgatagarbha ideology is Buddha gotra. In Brown's comparison of M~dhyarnikaand Vijiiznavada, he explains that, in M ~ d h y a m i k athe , mention of 'gotra' is very scarce in the ancient Ssstras. Essentially, it is the combination of the A b h i s a r n a v ~ l a n k ~and r a the RatnaaotravibhSaa that provides a definitive source for the denotation of 'gotra'. This is particularly true kom the Tibetan perspective of the MSidhyamika point of view. The AbhisarnavzIankZira attributes the gotra as the substratum of the Bodhisattva path, and determines that gotra should be identified with d h a r m a d h ~ t uThe . idea of dharmadhztu is synonymous with the conception of the Buddha Nature, and it too is often described as an embryo (Brown 46). The
dharmadhztu is the universal, supporting ground for the realization of the Mahzbodhi (Brown 66). This notion is often associated with Mzdhyamika doctrine and is directly analogous with gotra (lineage, gene or germ) (Brown 46). Furthermore, from the Tibetan historical perspective, the tathzgatagarbha could be a missing Link between the Msdhyarnika and the VijiiZnavada (rise of conscious experience) disciplines (Waddell
110; Paul 50).
Paul summarises David Ruegg who further investigates this notion of the link between primitive and Tibetan Buddhism by the tathzgatagarbha ideology. In rudimental Buddhism, the criticism of the impeccability of an Arhat, which became a direct cause for the schism between Sthaviravgda and Mahasanghika, was based upon the concept of the non-defiled ignorance of an Arhat (see Ruegg La Thkorie du
6 due association . between the pure mind and defilements was adopted by the Mahzsanghikans, and then later by Mahgyzna. The relation between garbha and gotra became a subsequent development. The Vijiianavadans emphasised the importance of the development of the tathggata as equated with the
Buddha gotra (lineage of the Buddha). In contrast, the Mzdhyamikan Bastras do not place emphasis on the Buddha gotra. Instead, the notion of Zryagotra is mentioned, and defined as being immaculate, permanent and real. However, the concept of Buddha gotra is present £?om the eighth bodhisattva-bhfimi and above. The Buddha gotra is described
as being brilliant as a gem and has the qualities of a Buddha This comparison appears in texts such as the T a t hggatagarbha Siitra and the R a t n a ~ o t r a v i b h ~ g~aa s t r awhere , the tathzgata is compared to a jewel. However, caution must be exercised when
comparing these two notions, for, in Madhyamika, the literary allusion appears as a family of TathEgatas, and not as existing by nature itself (Pad 51-2). a. Definition of tathEgatagarbha
The definition of tathagatagarbha is a difficult one to discern, as there are various meanings of the word 'garbha'. Paul gives several examples of possible definitions. She begins by establishing the meaning of tat hsgata as being the, "thus gone one" or "thus come one". The majority of scholars agree that this phrase is a reference to Buddha(s). Garbha, however, is a complex term to d e h e . Some of the definitions that Paul gives are: "womb, inside, middle, interior of anything, a fetus or embryo" (Paul 47). She continues in depth about the dual possibilities to interpret garbha. Seen as a bahuvrihi (the application of the whole compound in regards to another word outside of the compound), the meaning of garbha becomes a container for the t a t hggata; i.e., the one who holds the tat h~gata-in-embryo.This is only one way to render the bahuvrihi, another would be "who is the garbha of the t a t hagata," with a genitive relation between A and B. The "who" is outside the compound, (like all bahuvrihis), it equals the body. It would seem that the Tathz~ataerarbhaSfitra is
saying that our bodies are the container/womb of the tathzgata (which is hlly formed).
In contrast to the bahuvrihi meaning, she offers the tatpurusa (syntactic compound) meaning, which looks at the compound as a genitive one. It insinuates the garbha to be a potentiality for growth. It would seem that this is more of an inner development rather than a state of mind, as implied in the bahuvrihi. In accordance with Paul's research, it
would seem that the tatpurusa meaning is favoured among some scholars (Pad 48-49). However, Hookham asserts that the Tibetan expressions of tathagatagarbha are
limited by the way garbha is translated as 'snying po' (heart/essence). This implies that there is something valuable that needs to be retrieved. For instance, it is like butter, which needs to be retrieved from milk (Hookham 100). If the Tibetan particle 'can7 is added, a bahuvrihi is created, and the meaning is altered to "having Buddha essence". So, in Sanskrit, the concept is that "AII beings are tathagatagarbha", whereas in Tibetan it is "all beings have tathTigatagarbha7'. This implies that the Tibetan view states that all beings have the essence of Buddha or have Buddha hearthind within them (Hookham 100).
Yet, this grammatical consensus does not solve the dilemma concerning the literal meaning of garbha. For instance, the Waymans initially d e b e garbha as an "embryo."
In contrast D. T.Suzuki in his translation of; LankgvatZra Siitra; interprets garbha as being a "matrix." Ruegg, on the other hand, tries to determine the meaning through the use of Tibetan, Sanskrit and Chinese uses of the word. In the Tibetan usage of Sninpo/garbha it is used to describe the "essence," the "seed," or the "heart" of something. A secondary usage of garbha in Sanskrit is also "interior," "essence" or "heart." In Chinese, tsang/garbha is used to define a "storehouse," a "containery7or a "'hidden place7'(Paul 49). The Waymans write about the various alternatives to garbha in their article on "The Title and Textual Affiliation of the GuhyTigarbatiintra7'; Accordingly, it appears that all three senses of the word garbha are alluded to in a passage of The Lion'sRoar of Queen Sri-mala; ....where the translators can now acbowledge, by reason of the present information of three kinds of garbha, that they wrongly translated the word garbha each time as 'embryo.' It would be just as wrong, of course, to translate it each time as 'womb.' The passage can now be understood this way: 'Lord, this Tathsgatagarbha is the IlIustrious Dhannadatu-womb (first kind of garbha); the Dharrnadatu-embryo (second kind of garbha); the essential
of supermundane dharma and the essential of the intrinsically pure dharma (the third kind of garbha)"' (Sutton page 53). This illustration of the three different uses of tathggatagarbha in the ~ r i m a ~ ~ d e v i Satra alone shows how diverse the definitions really are. Each sntra seems to have its own idea about the meaning of the tathagatagarbha. Paul mentions that the concept of Buddha-gotra (element, cause, source, origin, family, clan, lineage, gem, or matrix) is used as an alternative to Buddha Nature. She believes that is an indication of a preferential interpretation of garbha as "member," ccseed,"or "lineage," as it would refer to the true sons of the Buddha (Paul 124). The concept of Buddha-gotra, she continues, is focused upon the nature or the essence of the tat hzgata, as it pertains to the intrinsically pure state of mind, de-emphasising the nature of defilements in the minds of sentient beings, which draws the connection between the linguistic differences (Paul 224). The Waymans believe that the T a t h ~ a a t a ~ a r b hSiitra a looks at tathagata as
though it is the true nature of dharma, and whether the tat hagata arises or not, sentient beings will always have the embryo of the tathggata (Lion's Roar 47). Another siitra in which the tathsgatagarbha is discussed is the LankZvatEra
SEtra. In D. T. Suzuki's translation and commentaries upon the Lankgvataa Siitra, Buddha and MahBmati address the concern over the tathsgata being equated with the Btman. The dates given by Suzuki of transiation for this stitra are based on the Chinese
authority, circa 412-433 CE, which would place the translation soon after that of the Parinirvana Siitra (S&,
Studies in the Lankgvatika 4). In the LankZvatSra
Sfitra3the Buddha describes the tathagatagarbha to Mah~imatias being; " ... by
nature bright and pure, as primarily unspotted, endowed with the thirty-two marks of
excellence, hidden in the body of every being like a gem of great value, which is enwrapped in a dirty garment, enveloped in the garment ol'the Skandhas (aggregates),
D hHtus (essence), and Kyat anas (base of cognition) and soiled within the dirt of greed, anger, folly, and false imagination, while described by the Blessed One to be eternal, permanent, auspicious, and unchangeable" (Suzuki, Lankzvatara Siitra 68-69). This is the general explanation of the tat hsgatagarbha to Mahsrnati.
Suzuki mentions an interesting difference between the LankEvatEra SEtra and other siitras in that the Lanksvatzra makes a distinction between conventional
language and higher truth. MahHmati seems to be especially interested in finding out the distinction between the higher truth and its expression in words. Suzuki believes that Mahamati is hoping that once this relationship is clear, he will be much closer to attaining Buddhahood. Yet this is not the final step in the path of development of the
tat hagatagarbha. There is still another major text, which mentions the tathzgatagarbha, the RatnaaotravibhHea S ~ s t r (Suzuki, a Lankavat~raSiitra 348). At the time that the RatnaaotravibhHw ~ ~ s twas r awritten (Takasaki deduces its origin to be in the late fourth century CE), in all probability, the author h e w nothing about the LankZvatBra Siitra (Takasaki 53). He continues to explain that this text concentrates mostly upon the cittaprakrti (Innate Purity of Mind) which is identical with the Buddha and in all other sentient beings (Takasaki 22). Cit taprakrt i is a result
of the realization all defilements that cloud tathzgatagarbha as being GiinyatS. It seems that the structure of this text is borrowed from various sources, one of which is the Tat hz~ataqarbhaSiitra. It also appears to be greatly influenced by N ~ g w u n a ' swork
(Takasaki 33). The great emphasis of this text is upon the realization of the emptiness of all d h m a s , therefore realizing that all defilements are empty in order to actualize D h a r m a k ~ y a(Brown 365)- Brown also discusses the Ratnagotra in his dissertation. He explains that this text takes an in depth look at the nature of ignorance and how to cancel it in order to achieve tathsgatahood. In this text, ignorance is the subtle root of
the tendencies towards desire, hatred, and delusion, which in turn influence sentient perception, which in turn affects action and rebirth. He continues to state that the critical interpretation of this siitra is that the congenital principle of ignorance is not ultimate;
"... but grounded upon and abides within the unconditional, Innate Pure Mind" (Brown
b. Tathsgatagarbha as already Buddha
Some authors believe that the Buddha used the idea of tathzgatagarbha as a teaching tool. D.T. Suzuki, in his translation of the LankZvatZra Siitra, provides this quote in support of the scholars who believe that Buddha himself spoke of this concept
and used it as a tool to teach the lay people. This quote is in response to a puzzled Mahzmati, who thought that the concept of the innate nature seems to correlation with the description of atman. Buddha clarified this misconception: " The Blessed One replied: No, Mahamati, my Tathagata-garbha is not the same as the ego taught by the philosophers; for what the Tathggatas teach is the Tat hZgata-garbha in the sense, MahHmati, that it is emptiness, reality-limit, Nirvana, being unborn, unqualified and devoid of will-effort; the reason why the Tathagatas who are Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones, teach the doctrine pointing to the TathBgata-garbha is to make the ignorant cast aside their fear when they listen to the teachings of egolessness and to have then realise the state of non-discrimination and imagelessness. I also wish, MahSimati, that the Bodhisattvas-Mahaattvas of the present and fiture would not attach themselves to the idea of an ego [imagining it to be a soul]. Mahgmati, it is like a potter who manufactures various vessels out of a mass of clay of one sort by his
own manual skill and labour combined with a rod, water, and thread, M a h a a t i , that the TathZigatas preach the egolessness of things which removes all the traces of discrimination by various skilful means issuing fiom their transcendental wisdom, that is sometimes by the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha, sometimes by that of egolessness, and like a potter, by means of various terms, expressions, and synonyms. For this reason, Mahamati, the philosophers' doctrine of an egosubstance is not the same as the teaching of the Tathsgata-garbha. Thus, Mahimati, the doctrine of the doctrine of the Tathzgata-garbha is disclosed in order to awaken the philosophers from their clinging to the idea of the ego, so that those minds that have fallen into the views imagining the non-existent ego as real, and also into the notion that the triple emancipation is final, may rapidly be awakened to the state of supreme enlightenment (Suzuki,Lankavatara Sfitra 69).
In this way the concept of t a t h s g a t a could be seen as an idea being utilized as a teaching tool. The difficulty that arises with this archetypal use of t a t hzgatagarbha as a teaching tool is the difference in language as means of conveying a truthfhl meaning. The imagery of the potter used in the above example can also be found in the Abhidharma school, as it is utilized to differentiate the two different types of truth used in Ianguage and how it pertains to achieving awakenment. c. Conventional and Higher Truths
Just as a potter uses all of his tools in order to make a pot, so must a disciple use all their abilities to realize tathggatagarbha. Supposing that the concept of
tathagatagarbha would simply be a stepping stone in the attempt to understand Nirvana, it would be a type of conventional truth, which is the truth that must rely upon language. The higher sense of truth is the reality that is mentally actualized (Kalupahana
language that works towards explaining something permanent or aanihilistic would be a "meaningless" language in that there is no communication of one's experience (in terns of sensed results rather than ultimate results). However, by making conventional truth absolute, the result would be a dogmatic practice that is akin to "clinging." According to
the Buddha, a wise person will understand the conditionality of conventional language, as well as its fruitfulness, without elevating them to the level o f ultimate rea-lity. This realization will help one attain nirvsna, where one will be ftee fkom, as well as against, such conventions (Kalupahana 118-119).
The above arguments are presented from the Mahzygna viewpoint. The na as there is emphasis on the t a t hlgatagarbha is prominent in the M a h ~ y ~ ideology,
mental defilements, and the purification processes of the mind in order to remove the defilements. In Vajrayana, emphasis is placed more on the physical process of removing defilements. As such, the theories and practices of tgntra reflect this conviction within its language. 2. The Sahaja Theory
Sahaja is the Intrinsic Nature that abides in the practitioner, and this ideology maintains that practitioner will realize awakening in the natural way. For example in
Hinay~na,sexual activities are forbidden, for the b h i k ~ u sand bhik~unisshould live austere lives. Those who abide by the Sahaja theory believe that this induces undue strain upon the practitioner. Rather than suppressing human nature, those who follow this ideology believe that whatever is natural, whichever is the easiest, is the most straightforward path to awakenment. If the realization of awakenment is achieved by this method, there is no need to practice the magical elements of mantra, rnudrg, and mandala. For, Sahaja consists of all three of these practices and more. The philosophical reasoning that M a h ~ y ~ experts na require, is abhorrent to the implementers of Sahaja. Saraha, one of the first Siddhzcaryas, expresses this disdain for scholarship. He uses the metaphor of a mirage in the desert to compare the academic method of
seeking the inner Buddha. A scholar can drink knowledge endlessly from the Guru, believing that the Guru is able to quench his thirst. This is like a mirage in the desert, for the Guru is unable to put the scholar in touch with the inner Buddha. At the time that Saraha wrote, he believed that the world was sick of this academic attitude, and all efforts made towards the intellectual discovery of awakenment will be futile once the threshold
of samszra is passed (ORC 54). K ~ n h aanother , Mahzsiddha, writes about this same sentiment. He believes that even though the traditional academics pride themselves on
knowing the truth, they rarely discover the absolute truth (ORC 54). As was previously mentioned, it was this new perspective that brought about the popularity of the tsntric viewpoint. Dasgupta gives the literal meaning of Sahaja as ". ..that which is born or which originates with the birth or origination of any entity" (ORC 78). There are other possible meanings and they are discussed in M e r detail in the notes of the translation of CaryZ three. Sahaja is the state where a11 constructed thought is dead, and where the defiled nature of citta is seen through, and its purified nature is found. Sahaja exists in the unity of the female and male principles. It is the state of non-duality that is inexpressible by words. It is the state of Mahzukha, it is another name for Buddha Nature, the state of awakenment. 3. Mahgsukha
Literally, this is the Great Bliss. The imagery around this metaphor usually depicts the male as upzya and the female as przjjnfL.Mahzsukha is the ecstasy that arises fkom the union of these two components. From this harmonious conjunction, awakenment is attained, even if only for a brief moment &lishra 140). Mishra believes that Mahassukha
is the entire pivot point of tzntric practice. It can be d e h e d as perfect awakenment, for without bliss, he states, there is no awakenment (Mishra 151). It can also be defined as the body of perfect knowledge. At its highest level it can also be equa-tedwith Sahaja. Several of the Caryss speak of attaining awakenment by, or dong with, realizing Mah&ukha. Ltiipg and Kgnha are two of the masters that-speakof this in their work (Mishra 151).
The concepts of Sahaja and Mahsmudra are also intertwined. In "The Song of Mahgmudra", as rendered by Chang, this notion is illustrated. Two such verses read: The Void need no reliance, Mahamudra rests on nought. Without making an effort, But remaining loose and natural, One can break the yoke Thus gaining liberation (Chang 25). This first quote describes Mahamudra as Stinyats, which is attained by natural effort.
As was mentioned in the above section, Sahaja is attained through the natural way. The "yoke" that is broken to gain awakenment is representative of the burden of samsgra. Another example of the natural way of Mahsmudra is again depicted in this verse: One should not give or take But remain natural, For Mahsmudra is beyond All acceptance and rejection. Since Alaya (store consciousness which preserves the "seeds" of mental impressions) is not born No one can obstruct or soil it; Staying in the "Unborn" realm All appearances will dissolve Into the Dhannata (the essence or nature of the dharma), all self-will And pride will vanish into nought (Chang 29).
The verse emphasises naturalness. Chang explains that the yogin should not make the slightest effort of any kind. The basic idea is that Buddha Nature as being the same as Mah-udra
is not realized, a s we are busy manufacturing samssra- Ethe practitioner
allows the mind to flow or stop without assisting or restricting thoughts, this is the practice of spontaneity, and of naturalness (Chang 38). Thus "no effort" means that the manufacturing of samsara is stopped. The 'Unborn realm" is when the practitioner is able to realize awareness, is able to sustain it, and allows everythmg they experience to liberate itself into StinyatS (Chang 39-40). These are just a couple of examples of how Mahzmudra and Sahaja relate, however, the notion of MahZmudra itselfis more
complex. Although this term has several meanings, this can be another expression of
awakenment used in the C a r y ~ sAlso, . it can be a method of meditation that is used to realize awakenment. This is accomplished by utilizing upsya and prajE8 to gain the insight that leads to awakening. More commonly, Mahzmudra is translated as the "Great Seal". The "great" refers to the simultaneously arisen bliss, and the "seal" refers to 8finyat8 of giinyata. It can also be simply regarded as Giinyata, which is the great bliss
because the phenomena never changes fiom the state of lacking inherent existence. As SfhyatE is the nature of all phenomena, and direct meditative realization of it leads to
awakenment, it is referred to as "seal". There are four types of seals; the first is that all products are impermanent, second that all contaminated things are miserable, third is that
all phenomena is self-less, and £inally that peace only exists in nirvana. The third of these four seals represents Mah&mudra,and is an essential step before that of nirvgna (Geshe Kelsang Gyatso 9).
There are two different types of Mahamudra; there is the consequential-time and the casual-time. Consequential-time is wen there is no more learning and the f i t i o n of Buddhahood is achieved. Casual time Mahsmudra is practised before the moment that the union of the two truths which is attaining Buddhahood. It is in this practice that the superior teachings within tgntra are engaged in order to achieve awakenment. The realisation of this bliss is not that of simple sexual union, but is only achieved when the all the c k a s h o t s melt, and allow the flow of bodhicitta through the central channel (Gyatso 10). 5. The meanings of terms summarized
Although the character of the idea of the innate Buddha remains the same, the terms utilized to depict this ideology vary greatly. As seen above, each term depicts not only the meaning, but also the practice that is associated with the ideology. Each also
emphasises different aspects of the Buddha Nature/awakenment ideal. The term tat hzgatagarbha is the most prominent in Sanskrit siitra literature. However, in
Vajray Zna, the usage of this term is rare. Sahaja explains the innate (born together) aspect of Buddha Nature. MahHsuka elucidates the bliss tone of the experience of realizing Buddha Nature. Finally, Mahsmudra explains the "sealing" of the realization of Buddha Nature. The brief
outline of some of the more popular terms simply touch upon the practices involved in tHntra. As the practice is not the main focus of this discussion, I have simply given a
skeletal explanation of the terms. Furthermore, these terms are influenced by the nature z affected the depiction and of the language employed in the Caryss, s a n d h a b h z ~ has denotation behind the above terminology.
The Caryzpadas are a collection of songs that were compiled in and about the twelfth century. T. Mukherji has noted that the final line in the songs usually denotes the ~ &om the author of the song, which is known as the bh8etE. The b h ~ n iist derived
following roots: dbhan-, [email protected], dbul- and dbol-. These roots are defined as: "to say" (PK 4). There are several conjugations of this verb, and in five of the songs it appears in the
honorific declension. Mukherji believes that the disciples of the Siddhas named in the songs most likely wrote these songs. The rational of this idea is that the disciples had obscured their own names and thus had inserted their guru's names as a mark of respect
(Muk 10). For example, in [email protected] fifteen the [email protected] is written as "bolatheu", which is the honorific declension. Mukherji' s hypothesis would accredit this to the disciple writing
in honour of his Master. Yet, Munidatta, whose commentary is used as an authority upon the songs, ascribes this CaryS as being written by !%inti.Munidatta gives no indication that this [email protected] could have been written by another. Yet another example of this occurs in CaryL twenty-eight, where the b h s n i t l appears a total of three times in this song. Mukherji offers the solution that perhaps the additions were interpolations upon the original (Muk 9n.1). Sen concurs with Mukheji's proposal. Sen asserts that CarySYs seventeen, twenty-eight, and fifty are actually anonymous, and were later ascribed to an author. It is Sen's postulation that a few of the songs were written by disciples and then later credited to the Masters as a manner of respect or honor giving. The importance of s~ Ianguage). the authors of the songs is reflected in the study of s a n d h a b h ~(twilight The literal and idiosyncratic meanings of the lyrics are reflective of the life experiences of the Siddha; these experiences are discussed in a later part of this study, as is the
symbolism behind the lyrics. Yet, it must be determined how this intentional writing style is defined and what "sandhabhSs&" is meant to express, There are various definitions for "sandhabhiis~",and although the translations seem to denote similar meanings, in fact the meanings are in discord with each other. The most commonly known translation is the one that is rendered by Sastri, that of ' M i g h t language" (PK 3 7). Benytosh Bhattacharyya concurs with this interpretation; "They [the siddhacaryas] wrote in a language which was designed by them as the [email protected]&or
twilight language, meaning that the contents may be explained either by the light of day or by the darkness of night" (PK 37). Miiller and Snellgrove refer to it as "secret speech", and Dasgupta employs "enigmatic speech" (PK 37). AIthough Wayman d e h e s s a n d h a b h a ~ aas "intentional speech", he also argues that there is the possibility of "twilight language" being correct. This definition intimates that something exists that is different from what is directly implied by the words (Wayman, Buddhist Tantras 128). He derived this from the extensive research done by Professor VidhuSekhar ~ ~ s t r i . Edgerton's definition as found in his Buddhist Sanskrit Hybrid Dictionary renders 'samdhH7 as having an "esoteric meaning"; therefore 'samdhE- b hZ$t a' would mean "expressed with esoteric meaning" (Wayman, Buddhist Tantras 129). However, Wayman informs the reader that this is not a retiable definition. It is inferred in Tibetan manuscripts that the intention of sandhabhgsz is "...intended for candidates with keen senses and zeal for the highest siddhi (success) but the words for that goal are stated in ambiguous discourse" (Wayman, Buddhist Tantras 129). In Wayman's historical investigations, he k d s that another significant reason that this term may be translated by some as "twilight language" is because of the significance of the time of dawn and dusk.
Twilight is symbolic of the sensitive points of the transitory flow of time where spiritual mastery was possible. Msra is traditionally believed to have come to disturb Gautama's meditation under the bodhi-tree at the time of dawn (Wayman, Buddhist Tantras 130). Snellgrove also chooses to interpret this word as secret language. SnelIgrove finds that the basis of all tsntra is the union of consecration and secret languages, of the different joys and of feasting and rest (SHVT 94). Kvierne's comparative study of the uses of this term concludes that the definition of sandhabhZ~8 should not be "secret
language." Contrarily, this is drawn upon Snellgrove's comments that the "jargon" such
as "lalana, rasan& padma, vajra, and so forth...." are not particularly '%idden" in their meanings. Some of the images are certainly not original. He observes that many are household terms that could appear in any religious or philosophical environment. Furthermore, some statements seem to be more proverbial or popular. Kvzme believes that this indicates that the authors of the songs were in touch with contemporary literature. A parallel is made with Kabir and his genre of sant poets' use of "ulta-blisi" (self-contradictory statements). These self-contradictory statements also appear prominently in the Cary~giti.Kvzerne, favours "symbolic" or "intentional" speech, as it connotes something that is beyond ordinary speech. He quotes lam^ Angarika Govinda: This symbolic language ...has its origin mainly in the fact that everyday language is incapable of expressing the highest experiences of the spirit. The indescribable that can only be understood by the initiate or the experiencer, can only be hinted at through similes and paradoxes (PK 39). Kvaerne asserts that Munidatta in his commentary uses the term to mean "figurative or metaphorical speech" (3 8).
Yet, the majority of the experts upon the CaryZs concur that there is a dual level of meaning within the songs. Mukherji describes the two levels as being spiritual, which is mostly hidden in the language, and literal. An example of literal language is used in Carya thirty-six: Svapane mai dekhih thihubana S e a In my dreams I saw the three worlds void (Muk 11).
These types of passages have a simple and straightforward meaning; it is not hidden from the reader. The spiritual meaning is a matter that has many levels. Of the statements that have hidden meanings, there are those that seem straightforward, yet, contain hidden meaning, such as CaryZi 14:
Yaiigs jauns mSjhE re bachai n&i In between the Ganges and the Yamuna there flows a river (Muk 11). There are also statements that are complex and have hidden meaning, such as CaryE 33: balada bi-la gabia bZjha The bull gave birth to a calf, the cow is sterile (Muk 12).
He believes that all the songs fall into these three categories. In regards to the expression '[email protected]~,'he believes that the conventional definition is a misuse of the expression. Instead he divides the amended word into four sequential classes: Primarily there is byzja, which Mukhej i defines as being an allegorical statement. An example of this would be Carya one, where the body is compared to a tree. Following this is sandhybgabda, which is when a particular word contains a double meaning. These meanings would be a literal or a surface meaning, and a meaning that is understood
by those who can draw upon the knowledge of the canonical literature of the sect or other such knowledge. This is set apart from the third class, which he refers to as s a n d h a b h ~ sHe ~ . observes Munidatta's commentary does not quote any specific word,
but instead simply comments, "[email protected] prakatayitumahuh" and "sandhy8bh&y& prat ipHdyati", which literally means: "SandhabhHsa manifests... and sandhabhgsg sets foot upon, arrives at, reaches, attains" (Monier-Williams 652,
667).Mukherji believes that it is reasonable to assume that these comments are referring to the whole song rather than a specific stanza. However, Munidatta's comment only refers to two CarySs (numbers G o and thirty-three), and Mukherji observes that there is a resemblance in their style of composition, and they are both based upon incompatible and incongruous statements. Therefore, Mukherji concludes that sandhabhasa refers more to a style of composition which includes sandhyz-jabda, rather than referring to symbolic meanings behind specific words. Finally, Mukherji lists the simple statements whose meaning is clear. Mukhej i does not concern his investigation with the esoteric connotations that the language implies. Instead, he concerns himself with the literal and surface meanings within the songs. Mojurndar believes that sandhabha:Z should be rendered as ccbtentional language". The purpose of this type of language is to maintain the secrecy of the practice, as only the initiate should be able to understand the hidden meanings of the songs. He
quotes Eliade as support for his argument; The tzntric texts are frequently couched in intentional language- a secret, obscure language with a double meaning, wherein a particular state of consciousness is expressed in erotic terminology, the mythological and cosmological vocabulary of which is charged both with hatha-yogic and with sexual significance (Moj 82). Other alternatives offered by Mojumdar are that "intentional language" was used as a lure to attract people away from orthodox practices into tsntric practices, or that the language was used as a mnemonic device, as "queer and eccentric phraseology tends to be more lastingly remembered and more readily recalled.... especially when the code language
uses a... potent idiom like the erotic" (Moj 82). Kvaeme mentions that Eliade (as mentioned above) and Bagchi generally accept the definition of sandhabhgsg as intentional language. Dasgupta too refers to this tenn as "sandhy8" (PK 38).
In Lessings and M e ~ o n ' sreading of the Hevaira Tantra, the "tHntric code language" @ow they refer to sandhabhZsS), is characterized mainly by the consequences of not observing the Vow;
...the great language that amplifies the convention of the Observance of the Vow ....The yogi who has been consecrated for the practice of Hevajra and does not communicate utilizing this Tantric Code language will, without any doubt, be breaking the Observance of the Vow. Then he will have troubles fkom thieves, possessions, fevers, poisons etc. Even if he is enlightened he will die if he does not communicate using the Tantric Code Language. If the yogi does not communicate using this code language when in contact with those who follow the same Observance of the vow, the Yoginis of the Pithas will afflict him with their anger (HVT 201-3). They also give an example of the underlying meaning behind the Tantric Code Language:
There are five kinds of families, differentiated by the five castes and are according to the Tantric Code Language the five Buddha Families. Dombi is proclaimed to be of the family of Vajra, Nati of Padma, CandEli of Ratna, Brahm&r#of TathZgata and Rajaki of Karma. These are thk Consorts who bestow the best Accomplishment. Their sexual fluid is adamantine and the holder of the Vow should drink it after serving them (HVT 202). This seemingly straightforward passage contains a myriad of alternate meanings. For example, the sexual fluids of the Yogini are adamantine because they result fkom the union of the male and female organ, which is the method the practitioners use to achieve
the adamantine howledge (EIVT 202). This classic interpretation is based on Mzdhyamika. However, as the model of the family of tathiigatas does not appear
within the Caryss, further investigation of this concept at this conjuncture wouId not be productive. The various interpretations of the expression "sandhabh+a3' are rather
astounding.What can be inferred £?om the variety of expositions on "sandhabhii$i " is the undeniable certainty that the intent of the language is to keep particular concepts fiom being exposed to those who are not initiated into the practice. It could be argued that the customs within t5intra are viewed as erotic, and consequently taboo by those who are
unwilling to comprehend the significance of the applications within this doctrine. Therefore, those who are uninitiated will not be exposed to the superior meanings of the teachings if the purpose is not blatantly apparent. Furthermore, the hidden significance
will keep those initiates who are not as accomplished in the higher level of doctrinal practices £?om being exposed to notions that they are unable to comprehend. However, it proves to be a difficult task to discern the most accurate rendering of this expression. It seems that Kvarne's comparative study would be the definitive answer. The usage of "intentional" language or "symbolic" speech would indeed convey the most accurate objective of the term. However, the literal meaning does imply the twilight time, and the romantic imagery that is conjured with this usage does justice to the nature of the Carygs. Consequently, the original Bengali expression shall be utilized in this paper, as
it allows the multiple interpretations to be present in every situation. The ensuing pages will contain selected Caryas, and a comparative study of their transliteration and translation, with the purpose of discovering the "intentional" meaning hidden within the speech.
VI. Transliteratedverses of The Caryagitis
I. CARYA THREE: A Grog shop* a. Part One: -Aboutthe Author: Biriipa
The creator of this song is known as Birfib~pa,BiriiG or Birtipa. He is more commonly known in Sanskrit as Virtipa. Tsranztha records Biriipa's instruction originating with the dEkivi Candikq
about whom the second instruction is named
after and designed. There is a debate about whether or not there is a temporal master that passed instruction on to Birfipa. Shaw imparts that, despite the fact that there were many monks that trained in the same monastery as B i r ~ p athe , official records of the Tibetan Sa-skya school, which claims Birfipa as its founder, make no mention of a human guru
in connection with Birfipa's training.Furthermore, the same record attributes his training in tantra to the d8kiqi N a i r g t m a y ~(the main dskini in the Hevaira Tantra) (Shaw
136). T b a n a t ha too is uncertain if Birfipa had other instructors for this teaching (Templeman, Seven Instruction Lineages 15). In the Blue Annals a reference is made to
him being trained in the practice of the Severed headed Vajrayogini fkorn B h i k s q i Lak~mifikarHdirectly @ A 390). Robinson discerns from his translations that Biriipa
received his instruction from Vajrav~rahiin the Hevaira Tantra (Robinson 285). Shaw determines from the BA that Birfipa is also a yogin of the 'Tath and Fruit" doctrine (BA 206). Conversely, Mishra gives Jslandhari credence for being Biriipa's initial instructor (Mishra 124-125). However, in the BA, the Lineage listed for Jalandhari makes no mention of Biriipa (BA 3 85).
There is some confusion about the correct account of Birfipa. Apparently, there
was another Siddha of the same name born in the Tripura area, which Mishra noticed in the Tibetan text PZE-SZm-Jon-ZZnq (Mishra 124). From the accounts of Taranstha, the composer of the CaryE songs would not be the one born in the Tripura area. Rather, it would be the one that was expelled fiom the samgha for his moral laxity and later gained royal favour in Orissa, after he had attained Siddhi (Mishra 124-125). As TBranEtha's text makes no such distinctions directly, it can be inferred Eom the text that the Biriipa that TEranBtha speaks of was known for the episode of his expulsion from his samgha. Since TTiranStha makes no mention of this Birtipa hailing fiom the Tripura area, Mishra may have assumed that the opposing account is inaccurate. In support, Robinson mentions that Birtipa may have hailed fiom the Tripura area (Robinson 27). Being that Robinson's translation stems from the Tibetan, it could be proffered that the Tibetan amalgamated various accounts. However, there is no direct evidence found in any of the above authors accounts that this was the case. The English translations of the song titles are as Sen renders them. **
Templeman notes that in the Hevaira Tantra, CandikB appears as one of the thllty-two veins that demonstrate bodhicitta (Templeman, Seven Instruction Lineages 108).
Within V a j r a y ~ n athe , practice of Candikl constitutes of rigorous meditation, where the body becomes pervaded with intense heat, which is said to drive off, or consume hindering agents.
b. Part Two: Textual Studies and Translations
1) eka se Sunlini dui ghare szndhaaa/ cfaqa [email protected] bHndhaa '// 2) sahaje thira kari bwuni b8ndhad/ jGe ajarlmara hoi dirha k~ndha'// 3) daSami duzrata cihna dekhigg/ Hila garlhaka apane bahiz // 4) caiigathi ghariye detah p a s a r ~ / pa'i!hela garHhaka nZhi nisZrB // 5) eka g h a r a ~ saruaj i n~la/ bhananii birfiH thira kari cgla //
" Sha changes the ending from the double 'a' to the Bengali locative ending of 'ai.' Although this would modify it into a form that contemporary scholars would easily recognize, I will adhere to the common transliteration of the word, as it complies with the language of the era. In Sha's rendering, the locative case ending is added to this word. This does not seem to fit the translation given by him or others. It would seem that the modified ending should be ablative. -Muk7sreading chooses the alternative pronunciation of 'bay as 'va' . This gives the reading more of a Sanslait tone.
- PK maintains that the Tibetan translation suggests a negative particle in 'ciaqa na bzkalta.' He believes that the Sanskrit and Bengali transIation has lost the particle. This does change the translation somewhat, see endnote [ S ] (84). Sen asserts that, in the case of old Bengali, the negative particle is placed between a pair of subjects or objects. Modem Bengali most usually places the negative at the end of a sentence. However, in a complex sentence that expresses a condition, possibility, or a doubt, the negative particle is placed before the verb in the dependent clause. It can similarly be placed in
the principle clause, should the finite verb not be in the indicative mode (100-102). Thus, in accordance with Sen's assertions, the negative particle does not comply with the linguistic patterns of old Bengali. Therefore, one may conclude that PK's renditions
may have been based upon a scribal error. In Sha's rendition of this song, he again modifies the ending to the locative 'ai'. Muk, in his beginning notes, postulates that the grammatical structure of this particular word is that of a closed root, present participle. Unfortunately, he mistakenly takes the root ( b8ndh) to mean "tied or fastened," which does not lead to a comprehensible
sentence. The others take the root to be ( b b ) , meaning "to prepare, or distill." This is contextually a more reasonable rendering as it pertains more to the topic of the sentence.
This word in many works appears as 'sHndhe9. Muk in his work states that 'sHndhe7
may be a scribal error as it does not match the rhyme and meter of 'kandha'. In fact, Muk corrects it to read 'bzndha,' which he gives the same meaning as 'bandhaa', in his vocabulary. Generally, this is the rendering that scholars utilize. However, Sha
explains that in Bengali dialects 'sandha' may be the Iocative of "to entery7.Ifindeed the Sanskrit meaning is identical to the Bengali (in accordance to Kirt ilat B' of V i d v Z ~ a tEd. i by H.P. Sastri), this meaning of this particular usage of 'sandha' connotes 'to ferment as wine' (Sha 10).
In both Sen and Sha there is a chandra bindu on the 'j a' character. Although the other three scholars omit the chandra bindu on their transliteration, I choose to include it. There is no variation in the meaning, only the pronunciation. Most likely, its addition is didecticaI.
8 his is the most common transliteration of this word. In Sen's article there is an alternate word given; 'gdhadha.' This is taken from the Sastri manuscript The majority take the ASB's manuscript to be a more accurate rendering.
Sen offers an alternate to this word, quoting Sastri's text. The word as Sen prefers it is; 'dekhaiz.' The difference seems to be dialectical, as the meaning remains unchanged. h
There are variations on this word. Moj uses 'dela' and Sen uses 'deu.' Muk states that the Sastri version uses the word 'deyate' and therefore 'deta' is a closer modification.
' This is the most common transliteration of this word. Sha takes this word fiom the Sanskrit commentary of Munidatta (8). j Sha gives this
rendition of the word. Muk supports its usage by claiming that this is the
more common ending. However, the majority transliterates the word as 'sarui.' Muk admits that his usage is harder to explain, and elucidates no further.
c. Translations: 1. There is a female barmaid,' she enters' into two rooms,3 She ferments4wine with the fine, powdered bark5 of trees. 2. By making the sahaja6imperturbable, the wine is distilled. By fieeing oneself of old age and death, the body7 becomes strong. 3. Upon seeing the sign8 marking the tenth door, The buyer of wine enters of his own accord. 4. The sixty-four pots are displayed in the shop, The customer enters without egress. 5. There is one small vessel, it's nozzle thin, Birus says: " Pour it steadily." 1
Sen in his vocabulary list provides a dual meaning of a pot with a long nozzle or a
woman wine seller. In direct contrast to the literal translation of this couplet, Sen translates it as follows:
" One is the ipe that connects two chambers: (It) distills liquor with the fermenting ingredients &elow) and the condensing cover (above)" (99).
-- - - -
- PK provides an explanation for this that states that the stem of the word; (QSuqd) is the same. Sen's imagery may be attributed to the storage/serving vessels for the liquor, which were severed, hollow bamboo pipes (82). I am choosing the literal rendition of this sentence. The word, 'gundini' has a feminine ending and the 'iy in Bengali as in SansIait, denotes a feminine ending, which would seem to indicate the wine seller is the appropriate definition (Muk 24). There are several variations in Sen's rendition of this couplet. As is seen in the quote of footnote six, the prevalent definition of 'sandhe' has been taken as "enter" (see endnote
[dl). However, Sen, in his vocabulary dehnes this as "to distiIl/preparevand in his translation reads it as ccco~ection." However, Muk believes that Sen took the verb's reading based on the Sastri's interpretation, which Sen takes to be a verbal imperative, where as in Sanskrit, it would be a non-finite verb. This reading would change the meaning entirely. This word can also be read as "house" or "room" as Sen's reading displays. As described in footnote [c],Muk's definition of this word varies &om the common
consensus. It seems clear that the intentional meaning o f this word would be "distill/ prepare" rather than "fasten." Sen in his interpretation, takes the word 'ciar?aYas rooting £?om the South Radha dialect (West Bengal) which would thereby make the meaning ''vaporous liquid." However, the common translation is £?om the Sanskrit 'cikkana' which, according to PK, means " h e " in Bengali. PK W e r states that Bagchi in his work believes that this refers to the "fine powder used for fermenting the wine" (83) and the Tibetan
defines it as yeast. With the negative particle in PK's rendition (see endnote PI), the couplet reads; One is the liquor-girl, (yet) she enters two houses; (she has) neither yeast nor (powdered) bark, (yet) she produces liquor (8 1). As PK's rendering displays, the negative particle plays a large role in the meaning of the sentence.
PK in his rendition takes 'sahaja' to be the object of 'kari', thereby rendering the translation of 'sahaja' as "naturally". This raises the question of the sandhy8bhssyZ of this couplet. For, if 'sahaja' is rendered as ''naturally," PK seems to have mistaken it to be 'sojg,' which in modern Bengali can be translated as "easy" or "straight" or even "straightforward." These two words are homonyms, although PK makes no mention of it in his notes upon this topic. Moj concurs with this conclusion as he notes that the secondary meaning of 'sahaja' could be easy, straight, or plain (32). 7
PK suggest that Sen's translation of the word 'kandh' as shoulder be in erratum. The modern Bengali word for "shoulder/ upper back" is pronounced similarly, however the spelling is 'k5dhY.PK uses the Tibetan to support his argument, as the Tibetan translation utilizes the wordphun-po, which means "body" (83).
In Sen's rendition, he translates this word as "token." I do not agree with this translation as it denotes a currency or rate of exchange. Rather, I believe this word is attempting to
demonstrate the idea of a marker, like a shop sign.
d. SandhabhFqZ: 1. There is one female bar maid,' she entersii into two rooms, iii She fermentsivwinev with the Tie, powdered bark of trees.
' As was discussed in the translations, 'Bundini'
has been rendered in various ways.
Moj, who translates this as ''wine woman" takes her to be a symbol of the dzkig Nairztma. The celestial consort of Hevajra is also represented in the forms of the dombi (washerwoman) and Sabari (Savara woman) (Moj 3 1). Dasgupta defines Nairstma as representing "essencelessness or perfect vacuity" (ORC 38). PK agrees that Nairgtma, when she is represented as the Yogin&is usually disguised in the aforementioned "despised foms," In this case, she takes the appearance of a woman in the business of concocting spirits (43). In the Hevaira Tantra, it is mentioned that Hevajra is the personification of bodhicitta (SHVT 3 1).
- 'Sundini', comes h r n the root 'd~und8'(spirituous liquor), and sounds like 'Sundaka' (flute). PK classifies this usage of s a n d h a b h ~ as ~ abeing a "pseudohomonym" (57). Furthermore, PK states that Munidatta takes ' Q u ~ d i n ito' represent 'avadhfiti,' which PK describes as a "central psychic channel" (82-3). Dasgupta d e h e s 'avadhiiti' to be "that, through [which] the effilgent nature of which all sins are destroyed, or that which washes away the beginningless thought-construction of existence, or that which removes the evils of affliction very easily". However, as Moj mentions in his notes, Dasgupta believes avadhZiti should be connected to the two nerves, lalans and rasanz (ORC 91). This imagery of the two nerves is fiuther supported by Bagchi and SZisrti, who also describe 'Sundini ' as being 'avadhiiti' or 'Nair~tma', which is the bodhicitta that travels upwards towards the head. Once the bodhicitta reaches
this destination, it attains the p ~ r a m a r t h i k astate, and is then essential in the attainment of Supreme Bliss.
-The priram2rthika state is one of the two aspects of bodhicitta It is the ultimate level of bodhicitta realization within the Mahzysna doctrine. The bliss produced through the union of prajiis and upsya has traveled through the Bodhicitta bhfimis and reached the highest state. The other aspect of bodhicitta is the samvrta stage. This is the act of sexual pleasure that produces Supreme Bliss (ORC 93-4). -It should be noted that all of PK's inferences are drawn upon his translations of Munidatta's commentaries.
" Farrow and Menon in their translation of the Hevera Tantra take this phrase to represent the Yogini entering the state of union (HVT XL,).
-PK claims that this is the joining, the cause to enter the central channel (8 1) (see above endnote (i) concerning Bagchi and ~Zstri). -.. "I
Moj believes that this is symbolic of the two nerves, 'lalan~'and 'rasanl.' These two
nerves, he states, are the principle of duality, just like 'praj Gay and 'upZya ' or the moon and sun, and so forth (3 1).
- PK renders this in his translation as ''two houses." In his examination of Munidatta's work, the hidden meaning represents the sun and the moon are represented. Furthermore, the svzdhist hHna is made firm at this stage (8 1). Dasgupta defines s v ~ d h i s t h l n aas being one of the cakra, the sacral plexus, which is near the penis and has a lotus with six petals the colour of vermilion (ORC 91 n. I). Also it is representative of water, as it is one of the five (out of the six cakras) that stands for the five elements (ORC 308).
- Bagchi and ~ ~ s believe t r i that the implication here is that the Bundini enters the two chambers and brings together both the sun and the moon and send them through the
middle one. That is to say the wine, which signifies s e v ~ t i k abodhicitta, enters the i body and travels upward to produce Sahaja (Bagchi and S ~ s t rxxxviii). " PK understands
"ferments" as "produces", and believes that it is indicative of the
binding powers of the Clear Light of Bliss (8 1). PK concludes that this is bodhicitta, " (the) seed, in the aperture of the peak of he VajraJewel", which could also be interpreted as "penis" (8 1). -Moj explains this as kZy&-sEdhanE(the quest to make the body fit in order to achieve
higher realization). The practitioners of this sadhang believe that the union of the male and female principles of prajiia and upsya produces bodhicitta, which he believes, is physically represented as "semen virile" (32). -Bagchi and ~ E srit concur with Moj in the inference that this is a reference to semen, which can also refer to samv$ika bodhicitta (xxvii). m
2. By making the Sahaja imperturbable,' the wine is distilled. " By freeing oneself of old age and death, the body becomes strong.
PK render this line as; Waking (it) naturally firm, produce l i q u ~ r(8 ' ~1).
He renders 'sahaja' as "naturallf7; the grammatical implication of this is considered above in endnote . As a result, PK notes that the above line is referring to Simultaneously arisen Bliss, which he equates to 'sahaja.' It should also be noted that the majority of the translations of this verse agreed upon "imperturbable," yet PK renders the tern as "W7 (81). The significance of "firm" is that he believes that it is the means that binds the Simultaneously arisen Bliss to the relative bodhicitta (See above; endnote [2.ii]). 'Tim" implies the Bliss of Cessation (PK 81). Viram~nada,or the Bliss of
Cessation, is the third of the four Snandas (joys) that is the result of the knowledge gleaned fiom the four abi~ekas(consecrations) (HVT xxxv). -Moj notes that the 'sahaja' is the path by which human nature leads itself. He explains that what is natural is most usually the easiest path (32) (See endnote ). -Munidatta notes that this could also indicate the binding of bodhicitta (PK 59).
" PK notes that this could denote the production of the liquor as a binding quality, and the liquor itselfrepresenting; "...the relative bodhicitta by means of the Bliss of Immobility (pHramBrthika) in the svZdhisth2inacakra..." (PK 8 1).
3. Upon seeing the signi marking the tenth door, ii The buyeriiiof wine enters of his own accord.iv -
' PK: The joy of great passion (81).
" PK: The tenth door being the door of Vairocana (the celestial Buddha) (81). -Moj: He believes it is the door to nirvsna, which is the door of Vairocana. It is the door to the highest truth and reality (32).
- Dasgupta explains that the tenth door is very significant in tantric practice. Soma and a m ~ t (nectar, a usually of the gods, which has the power of immortality) dribbles down from the moon through the tenth door, falling upon the fire of the sun, and is then dried or eaten up. When the essence of the body, represented in the form of soma and amyta, is eaten or dried up, the body then falls victim to kzlzgni (the fire of destruction). This is
the manner that the body eventually succumbs to death. However, if this flow of soma and amrta can be checked and regulated, KBla (time) may be deceived and the practitioner can achieve immortality. Thus the tenth door must be well guarded. Ifthe yogin can control all of his secretions, his bindu (seed) will be retained, even though he
may be closely embracing a woman. This nectar dripping from the moon is also referred to as amara-vzruqi (the wine of the mortals, as opposed to the amyta/soma, which also has the power of immortality), and upon occasion, the YoginI is also depicted drinking this nectar (ORC 240-3). iii
PK: The buyer = gandhamasattva (81). PK does not explain what a gandharvasattva is,
however, in Monier-Williams there are several definitions connected to this word. The most pertinent to the s a n d h a b h q s of this song defines it as the position of the ego after death, and just previous to it being born again. An alternate definition is a heavenly
guardian. Or perhaps they are Puriivaras, who are heavenly singers, also the name of the attendant of the 17th Arhat of the present Avasarpm-, or most commonly as a race of heavenly people (Monier Williams 346).
- Bagchi and ~ ~ s explain t r i that the customer, upon seeing the sign is in the state of antarzbhava citta (the state in-between death and regeneration) (xxix). Warder defines 'antara' as being "immediate" or "stream of consciousness" or immediately existing mind. " PK: Once the buyer
enters through that door, he will find delight in drinking the "juice
of the Lotus of Great Joy" (81). The '2otus" represents the yoni (the female organ).
- Bagchi and ~ ~ s tstate r i that the customer enters the shop (which represents vacuity), without leaving any signs behind, and then drinks the nectar fiom the lotus of great bliss
4. The sixty-four potsi are displayediiin the shop, The customeriiienters without egress.
PK: This represents the nirmlnacakra, which has the sixty-four petals (81). This is where the bodhicitta originates. However, if the bodhicitta remains in this region and does not rise through the other levels, the practitioners will not actualize the Supreme Bliss state (ORC 93-4).
-Moj takes this to represent the sixty-four pif has (places of worship) of the human body (32). -It is also possible that this could represent the nerve channels through the body-
PK: Perhaps it is the seat of gandharvasattva (8 1).
"' PK: Gandharvasattva (8 1). 5. There is one small vessel,' its nozzle thin," BiruZ says: '' Pour itiiisteadily."
PK: Avadhtiti (82). I'
PK: Destroys the dual-false appearance (82).
-Moj: Avadhiiti. It is the path of the Sahaja, or the 'avadhtiti-rnZrga,' and therefore it is narrow (32). *-*
"'PK: The non-fallen bodhicitta (82). e. Mahzmudra depictions in sandhabha~a It is essential to determine that there are multiple levels to this song. There is the blatant level of the song, which simply tells the story of a customer going into a wine shop. There is also the Mahiimudra level that relates to the practitioner on another dimension. Garma Chang lists three basic practices that he believes are essential for the realization of Mahsmudra. The need for equilibrium is one of these essential exercises.
In this yoga, the body must be tamed, the mouth must be regulated in regards to
breathing, and the mind must be controlled in that there is no clinging. Line two exemplifies this ideal:
By making the Sahaja imperturbable, the wine is distilled. By eeeing oneself of old age and death, the body becomes strong. Along with controlling the supreme bliss, there is meditative regulation of the body. The wine can be regarded as the bodhicitta. The second line seems also to refer Chang's second essential yogic practice, that of relaxation. Once the mind is stripped of all ideas of chging, it turns away fi-om s a m s G a , therefore it relinquishes its hold on the notions attached to old age and death, and becomes stronger by understanding non-duality and not clinging (Chang 3 7).
An alternate view of Sahaja is to regard it as the ultimate bodhicitta. This can only be accessed temporarily through such venues as meditation. In order to make sure that one continuously dwells in the realized state of Sahaja can continuously dwell there, one must make the "Sahaja imperturbable".
CARYANINE: A Mad Elephant
a. Part one: About the author: KZnhS
KBnhH, Ksnhapa, KrsnLic~rior Kznhu are some of the Indian names that this Mahzsiddhi is known by. By the account of the early Tibetans, Kznha's place of birth
was in the land of Karna. However, T-angtha
records that oral recounts may place his
. either case, it is known that he was born into the Brahmin caste. birth in V i d y ~ n a g a r In This master is very prominent, and T-ansttha
remarks that KanhZ was so extraordinary
that he was accredited as being his guru's most perfect disciple, as cited in the
K ~ l a c a k r aTznt r a (Templeman, Seven Instruction Lineages 43). Templeman explains that Ksnha's birth and accomplishments were previously prophesised (Templeman, Life of Krsnacawa 4). His name and accomplishments were predicted by the greatest seers, even Siddhartha had a vision of this stchzrya. The BA describes this event as it took place in Uruviga, when Kgnhg was a child. "'They once asked the Master to discuss the doctrine with the child (~ofi-zom*was a child at that time). The Master said:
'I am unable to debate with him! Because he is KysncSrya!'.-."
(BA 256). T&rangthays account of this event concurs with the telling of the BA.
Despite, or perhaps because of, his solecism, he gahed mastery of the discipline and distinction among the samgha. According to Templeman, Kznhz's primary guru is
Jzlindhari. He was of the lineage that was instructed by Lak~mI&arB (a dskig). She founded the Severed-headed Vajrayogini practice. Templeman notes that K B n h E also received a visit directly from this Mahgyogini (Templeman, Life of KrsnZcBrva 7). KLnhH was very important in the Cakrasamvara system, and his major achievement was the edification of the work, S a m ~ u t a t i l a k aTgntra (Shaw 134). Shaw believes
that this tirntra was actually the instruction of another master, a d s q i (celestial woman) named Bhadri. His encounter with this [email protected] is a parable that relates KZnhg's imperfection. As mentioned above, most accounts of his life intimate that he often became blinded by his own pride. For example, in KZnhZ's search for Bhadri he initially did not see the d-&ig in her divine form, instead he saw her as a low class woman in a poorly kept hut. When he continued on his search, and he arrived at the same destination a couple of days
later, he realized his error and prostrated himself at her feet. She then bestowed upon him the aforementioned teachings (Shaw 134). TZranZtha describes this same instance. However it is Guhyapa, one of KBnhE's pupils, who defeats the d a i q i for the sake of his master (Templeman, Seven Instruction Lineages 44). In Robinson's account KBnha wins the victory over the d g k i g (84-85). This being the one of the Tibetan names for an incarnation of KLnha.
b. Part Two: Textual Studies and transIation
1) ebamkii.raa dIrhab bgkhoyi moddiuc/ bibiha biHpaka b&ndhava toyiud// 2) kiinhae bilasai ~saba-rn&tB/ Sahaja nalinibana paisai nibitzf// 3) jima jima karingg kariqirsh risaai/ tima tima tat hat I maagalaJ barisaak// 4) chaya-gai saala sahzbe sfidha/ bhsbzbhlba balaga na chudha // 5) dasabala-raana haria da8adisG / bidya-kariL darnakiim aakilesi5//
" Muk: 'Evamk~r'.
This is the accepted transcription of this word. Muk takes note of the emendation made by both Bagchi and Sha, and states that the change to 'dirha' seems unjustified.
Muk uses 'moddiu', and Sen uses 'mo~ia'.These two readings root from Munidatta's commentary, which uses 'marddayitv&'. The majority use 'moddiu'.
Sen and Sastri use 'to:iaY7 which is closer to the Sanslait 'toyayitvZ7. PK justifies the majority transliteration with the Tibetan translation. Only Sen and Sha follow the ASB's transliteration of 'K&nhaY. The majority uses
'K~nhu',with no explanation provided. In the Bengali script, the letters 'ha' and 'na' form a compound, and while many transliterations reverse the order of romanization of
this compound, both are correct. Most likely ' K a a ' is formal and 'Kanhu' is more affectionate. This is inferred from the baul devotional songs to Lord Krishna. However,
in the English translation, everyone uses 'KanhaYf
Sha changed the transliteration to 'nibit&,' which brings the word closer to the modem Bengali pronunciation.
Sen uses the ASB manuscript to arrive at the word 'kariy H', which is the only difference in the transliteration. h
Sha amends this to be read without the chandra bindu. However, in his notes, the chandra bindu is mentioned- He states that this word is to be read as a nominative case (xiv).
Sha applies a chandra bindu over this word. He also alters the ending to read 'risai,' there is no explanation offered to explain why he changed it. One can assume that he did it to match the meter or refine the language.
This also appears as 'maa gala,' however, the popular transliteration reads this as one word. k
Sha changes the reading to 'barisai,' this would be to match the rhyme of 'risai.'
Only Sha adds the 'kii' at the end, which he justifies the usage as an objective case. The other transliterations use 'kari'. Sen's reading renders this word as 'damakuru,' which Muk attributes to the commentary by Munidatta, c. Translations:
1. 'Evamkar' smashes the strong posts. The various bonds2 are brokea3 2. K ~ n h becomes a intoxicated and sportingly4he enters the sahaja5 of the lotus forest, there he becomes tranquil. 3. Just as the bull elephant makes love to the cow elephant, Thus the rut of the tathatz flows.6 4. All beings of the six states are o f a pure nature, With existence and non-existence, not even the tip of the elephant's tail hair is impure.7 5. The jewel of ten powers has been takens in ten directions, The elephant of worldly howledge is tamed without effort.
PK in his notes hypothesizes that these may be the posts used to tie elephants to. -Sha is the only one that renders this sentence in the genitive form. 2
Majority of the translations equate this with "chains", "encircling" and "extensive." The image given here is that of a chain that binds the elephant's foot to the hitching posts.
Moj and Muk translate this as tomy'. However, the majority translates this as '%roken." 4
Although everyone uses this word in their transliteration. The definition in the vocabulary lists is questionable. The word given commonly in the Bengali transcripts is 'bilasai', and in the vocabuIary lists, it is translated as "enjoys". In the dictionary, it
appears as 'bilgsa' which is a noun meaning; '2wury;enjoyment; play; s p a ; pastime; coquetry; wantonness; and dalliance" @ev, B e n ~to . Eng. 879).
-It should be noted that 'Tisaba' is also a type of Ayurvedic medicine, aside fiom being defined as spirits and wine @ev, Ben4 to Eng. 168). Although this word appears in the Bengali, very few use it in their translations. The meaning of this word has been commonly associated with water and flowing, however, Sen translates it as c'discharges." 7
PK uses the word "agitated" here. He deducts this through the Tibetan script. Yet, in Bengali, that would not be the correct definition of the word. Therefore, I use the more commonly agreed upon "impure."
Moj here uses the word cccollected".This is the opposite of all the commonly agreed upon meaning of "lost" or "scattered". d. SandhabhFqZ: 1. '~vamkar"smashesiithe strong posts. The various bondsiiiare broken.
HVT: Two very important bijas (seed syllables) are 'e' and 'vam' . They believe that during the Gupta era, 'e' and 'vam' were written as two triangles, 'e' pointed downwards and 'vam' pointed upwards. This imagery was commonly found in mandalas. Both 'e7 and 'vam' are symbols for wisdom and means. When they are brought together they symbolize the union of wisdom and means, which results in Sahaja. So 'evam' is the symbol of the great Bliss of Consecration (HVT xxii)-
-SHVT: The samvara (union) of all the Buddhas are constructed on the sound 'evam', which is the great bliss itself, known fiom the process of abhiseka (consecration).
' E v a q ' is "thus" symbolising the perfection of knowledge, as 'evam mayH Srutam' (I have heard thus) in this tgntra should be understood as; "I have understood evam." Snellgrove states that 'e' is prajiia (wisdom) and 'vam' is upsya (means) and that some equivalents are lingahhaga, sorrow/bliss, sun/moon, blood/Sukra, and so on (SHVT 94
n2). It is expounded in the SHVT that; "...The scared syllable E, adorned at its centre by the syllable VAM, is the abode of all delights, the casket of buddha-gems," which is
supportive of the above point made in the HVT (SHVT 94). -Lessing and Wayrnan: "Evam" stems fkom virnditi-mzrga (the path of completion), which is described as the path to perfection of death, as opposed to the vip~ka-mags (the path to maturation), which is the path that perfects births. For further explanation see Lessing and Wayman 3 3 1. "Evam" is explained in the first step of vimukri-msrga. It is the principle of all Anuttara t%ntrain that it is both bliss and the void ('e' 'vam'
There are three symbolic meanings hidden in the dual syllables of 'e' and
'vam': 1) ' E v a m ' , the f i t to be attained, 2) 'e-vam' the path of attainment, and 3) 'evam'
the signs that are guides to the path. 1) Of 'e-vam' the h i t , Wayrnan gives an example that is very similar to what
Farrow and Menon say about the symbolic meaning of the two triangle that the Gupta dynasty used to spell 'e-varp'. Wayman explains that 'e' represents the Dharmadaya (source of natures) and 'vam' is Vajradhara and his deva retinue (Wayrnan and Lessing 333).
2) Zn 'e-vam' of the path, there needs to be the elucidation of the Void, the elucidation of Bliss, and the elucidation of the Void and Bliss combined inextricably. In
the exposition of the Void, Wayman urges the reader to consider the explanation of bodhicitta as provided in the Guhvarn~iaTantra-
'?My citta is fiee from all substance; avoids the personality aggregates, realms, and sense bases, as well as subject and object; is primordially unborn, the intrinsic nature of voidness, - through the sameness of dharmanairiitmya" (Wayman and Lessing 334). The bodhisattvas that are practitioners of the mantra-m8rga should be generating paramktha bodhicitta (supreme bodhicitta), by the way of bhzvana (contemplation).
Just as "voidness which is void of real production of all dharmas", is a set principle, therefore there must be the same view in Mantrayiina, that there is no higher view than M a n t r a y ~ n a(Wayman and Lessing 335).
In the exposition of the bliss and the void and bliss combined, the path to the lord Vajradhara (in the path of the fhit), is explained as the bodhisattva. Which represents the Bodhicitta that has generated the paramgrtha bodhicitta. This is based on the "...'voidness which is void of real production of all dharmas' corresponds [to] the phase of the path to the Dharmodaya triangle in the phase of the fruit...Voidness [would be] of the side of dharma, while bliss is on the side of the Btman. Since the combination blissvoid requires a person, the VajrayBna stresses the dharma-NairZitmayH but not pudgala-nairztmaya tpersonality non-substance, which is a self-producing substance]"
(Wayman and Lessing 33 5). -Dasgupta: When one is transforming the s a m v ~ tbodhicitta i into pHrarn&rthika bodhicitta, one must be sure to bavel neither left nor right (along the lalan&and rasanZi), for the bodhi is attained in the middle nerve (Evadhuti). For Kgnha, 'e' is the right nerve, or prajiia, and 'vam' is the left nerve, or upzya. By breaking the posts of
'evam', Dasgupta suggests that this would imply that Kznha had full control over prajiia and upzya (ORC 96-7).
-PK: Simply reminds the reader that 'evam' is representative of the sun and moon (109). Moj makes the same statement, and adds that it is also symbolic of Zli-kali (41). I'
PK: The sun and the moon (prajfia and upzya), are set fiee fiom false appearances
(perhaps these are the "strong posts") (109).
- 'Evalp' has been set fiee f?om false appearances, inferred fiorn the example given by Snellgrove in the above explanation. i.e. that the sun/moon integal is equated to 'evam' (SHVT 94 n.2). --"' PK: These are the binds that bond avadhfiti (109).Munidatta comments that they are
'samska-pZiau7 which are the bonds of samsara (PK 46). 2. KHnha becomes intoxicated and ~ ~ o r t i nhe ~ 1enters ~ ' the Sahaja of the lotus forest," there he becomes tranquil."'
' PK: The non-dependent nature of the three nHdis (109). -As discussed in endnote , 'Esaba' can also be a type of Ayurvedic medicine as well as meaning "enjoy; or sporting7'@ev, Beng to Enx 168).It also seems that 'mata' can appear in two forms. As a noun it can mean "mother", and as a verb, it can mean; 'Yo be
drunk;" but also it means " [to] be beside oneself with (joy, etc.)..." or " (plants) growing luxuriantly" (Dev, Beng to Eng 969). 'MEtZ' is used as a verb to describe '8saba.' One could also read this sentence as; "Kznha was beside himself with joy." "
PK: This is the Lotus of Great Bliss, which is also representative of the female sex organ (109) Furthermore, if "lotus" is equal to Dharrnodaya and Sahaja, which in turn is equal to t a t hzgatagarbha, then, tathlgatagarbha is the d h a r m a k g a .
-Moj: The Lotus of Supreme Bliss is also the abode of the goddess Nairztma (40). -Dasgupta renders "forest" as c'pool." In Caryg 10, Kznha writes of a dombl who destroys a lake and eats up the lotus stalk. As lake infers the body and the lotus stalk infers bodhicitta, he equates bodhicitta with lotus (ORC 104).Therefore, Dasgupta offers that this line could be read as "...(KBnha) enters the Supreme Bliss of the bodhicitta..." *--
"' PK: The practitioner is fiee kom discursive thought (109). 3. Just as the bull elephant' makes love to the cow elephant, Thus the rut of the tathatziiflows."'
PK: ~ h bull k elephant of the citta (upZya) is united with cow elephant Nairirtrna (praj6Z) (109). Munidatta explains 'karinSi' as 'citta-gajendra', which is the mind or
thought elephant (PK 46). -Moj : The elephants represent symbols of the yogi and the yogini. The female force is SfinyatZ or the essence of Supreme Bliss that resides in the cakra (41).
-In most Sanslcrit manuscript's there would be an example of bija here. However, the typical 'HA' syllable is not used for this idiom. Moj:This is the 'tat hat a' which is beyond body, speech, and mind (41).
-Dasgupta: Reads this as "...the final abode..." (ORC 30). It is the essential element that underlies all that exists (ORC 274). **-
"' Moj: In his rendition he mentions that the 'tathats' is like the rut of the elephants and that it is engaged in the lotus (which is representative of the Supreme Bliss) (41). 4. All beings of the six statesi are of a pure nature, With existence and non-existence, not even the tip of the elephant's tail hairiiis impure."' Moj: These are the six abodes and existences in Buddhism:
1) Niraya: The place of suffering (hell). 2) S r e ~ha-loka: t The prime world. 3) Tiryak-loka: The inferior world. 4) Manugya-loka: The world of men. 5) Deva-loka: The world of gods. Moj takes this to mean the world as a whole. That is, when a yogin enjoys Sahaja, everything becomes pure (41). It could also be rendered as samsHra.
" PK: Takes this as being the hair of the yogin (109). -In Bengali, 'balsga' is pronounced as 'bolzga', there could be a relation between this word and the Sanskrit 'bola', which represents the vajra. The difficulty with this theory is the syllable 'ga' (SEWT LOO). --.
PK: Renders this as "agitated," and notes that this represents impurity (109).
5. The jewel of ten powersi has been taken in ten directions," The elephant of worldly knowledgeiiiis tamed without effort.
' PK: This is the "suchness" that c o ~ e c t e dwith fearlessness, and so forth (109). -Moj: This is the symbol of the dasa-gilas, which are the ten properties of conduct (41). 1) Do not kill. 2) Do not steal. 3) Do not commit adultery. 4) Do not tell untruths. 5) Do not drink strong drinks.
6 ) Eat no foods except at the stated time. 7) Use no wreath, ornaments or perfumes. 8) Use no high mats or thrones. 9) Abstain fiom dancing, singing, music and worldly spectacles. 10) Own no gold or silver, and do not accept either.
The first five pertain to the laity and all ten apply to the monks. However, in many traditions, laity can abide by all ten rules on certain celebratory days (Waddell 134).
" PK: The jewels have been stolen by the yogin (109). The ten directions indicate the universe. .- "I
The everyday mind.
e. MahHmudra depictions in sandhabhH~I There are several obvious references to M a h ~ m u d r awithin this C a r y ~Line . one reads: 'Evamkar' smashes the strong posts. The various bonds are broken. By doing ('kara') thus ('evaqi'), the practitioner is focusing on the "thusness". Thus the post that binds the practitioner to s a m s a a is smashed. Line two reads: K ~ n h becomes a intoxicated and sportingly he enters the Sahaja of the lotus forest, there he becomes tranquil. Ifwe choose to read the translation as "Ksnha is beside himselfwith joy," it could be inferred that Kznha is experiencing the joy that can be found in the lowest cakra. However, this inference is still on the level of Mother tantra. Yet, the Mahgmudra insight is not far fiom this realization. Guenther, in his treatise on Naropa states that the experience of Mahgmudra is ". ..a brilliant sensation which is nothing in itself, devoid of and beyond all words and thought.. .which is not concerned with determinate object and yet is compassion for the benefit of bewildered beings.. ."(Guenther, Naropa 82). So, Ksnha experiences the bliss and compassion of the Sahaja, in the lowest cakra, where he becomes tranquil. Another reading on the Mother tantra level is displayed in 'evam', as mentioned before, in the Gupta period the alphabetical letters for this word
were two triangles, which can also be connected to two inverted cakras, or the inverted nerve system. [See section on cakras] The reference to the Lotus pond alludes to the things of illusory beauty, such as the common world women. Another Mother tgntra example is given in line three
Just as the bull elephant makes love to the cow elephant, Thus the rut of the tathatz flows. This is the flow of bodhicitta down through the cakras. Thus the MahiLmudra is experienced in the flow of bodhicitta. Chang explains that there are three ways to experience Mahzmudra. The f h t is through Blissfblness, when the practitioner's body is so enraptured with joy that even extreme cold or heat does not distract it. The second is through knowing Non-distinction, where one can experience the void nature of all three worlds. The third he claims to be the most profound; "Cast aside all clinging and the essence will at once emerge" (Chang 42). Both the yogin and the yogini, as represented by the elephants, cultivate Mahzmudra by casting aside all clinging, thus allowing
bodhicitta to flow. 'Tathsta' is Pure Awareness, which is the reason why Mahzmudra is experienced. Thus "flow" of the 'tathsta' indicates that one will observe and/or experience things purely. As the fourth line states:
A11 beings of the six states are of a pure nature, With existence and non-existence, not even the tip of the elephant's tail hair is impure.
Pure nature is found in all beings, therefore it is a reference to Buddha Nature. As experience and non-experience is not impure, it is non-dual, it too is a reference to Buddha Nature. The final couplet reads: The jewel of ten powers has been takenin ten directions, The elephant of worldly knowledge is tamed without effort. The "jewel of ten powers" are the ten pZrarnitEs (perfect insights), and the "ten directions" imply that these pEramit2s are completeIy developed. Thus by staying in
Mahsmudra, i.e. by employing the non-dual approach "worldly knowledge is tamed without effort", and all ten p&rarnit%are accomplished "without effort".
3. CARYA THIRTY-SIX: A Carefree Stalwart
a. Part one: About the author: K~snZicZrya See CaryZi nine
b. Part Two: TextuaI Studies and translation
1) suqa b&haa t a t h a t s pah&ri/ moha bhandzra lay s a a l l a h a i // 2) ghumai' na cebaY sapara b i b h ~ g ~ / sahaja nids1ub E n h i l a lEngZ// 3) ceana na beana bhara nida gel& / saala saphalaC kari Suhe sutelZ // 4) svapne may dekhila tihubaqa s e a / ghoria abav& gamar?ad bihu na // 5) Slkhi kariba jslandhari pZe / p a h i na rZihaae mori p-i%ndiScZie/
'In accordance to Muk's notes, Sastri emended the Sanskrit readingy'suSabZhay to the Bengali, 'suqa bsha.' The Tibetan reading for this song is unclear, Muk states. However, he notes that in CaryZ thirty-nine, the Tibetan reading of 'suina,' which suggests,'sunabiiha bidzria re,' (the hands of GiinyatE are extended). Ifthis is the case, then Muk believes that 'suqa b&haY is a probable reading. PK concludes that the reading of 'baha' should be 'bgsa, ' (house, residence). PK believes that the Tibetan, 'ston-pa'i khyim,' suggests 'suna bssa,' (the house of void). This contrasts with Sha
and Sen's translation of 'b&haYas "arm." PK believes that this translation may stem from a scribal c o d h i o n translating the Sanskrit to the Tibetan (225). Sha: 'ningdzlu'
This word is a point of contention among the scholars cited above. Sen and Muk believe that this word should be read as above. However, Sha and PK take the Tibetan
example and transliterate this word to read as 'mukala.' Muk states that this is supported by Munidatta in the Tibetan commentary; 'muktikytya,' (to liberate). Muk believes this to be an orthographic confusion between 'su' and 'mu,' PK states that the text, as it is preserved in the ASB supports the reading as 'suphala.'
Sha: 'abanzgabaqa' The Tibetan renders this word to read as, 'cghai,' PK and Sha prefer this transliteration. However, Munidatta' s commentary gives the above reading which the other three prefer. c. Translations:
1. By the arm of v o i d n e ~ st, a~t hatg is struck down.
The store of illusion is entirely taken and consumed. 2. He is sleeping without feelin the distinction of self and non-self.2 With Sahaja the naked Kanha sleeps, 3. Without consciousness of pain he fell deeply asleep. Everythmg successfully done he4 pleasurably slept. 4. In a dream I saw the three worlds void, Without the revolving of coming and going.' 5. I shall take and make the revered JElandhari a witness, The learned acharyas do not look in my dire~tion.~
PK had added the adjective " golden7'to describe the "house of void". Although there is no direct explanation given, it can be inferred that this is a reference to '[email protected]
as derived from the Sanskrit of Munidatta (214). Moj offers an alternate reading, " One's own people and others have forgotten their differences and are now in deep sleep...". There is no fuaher explanation given.
Moj: Reads "naked mind easily..." implies an alternative reading for 'Sahaja' (75). See
Caw&three, endnote six. 4
Moj : "Everybody".
P K s translation is the best verbatim, therefore it is given.
Moj: Reads "it is like an oil-mill." Muk believes that 'ghzni' in original Bengali refers to the indigenous oil-mill. This sentence has been ordered in a variety of ways. The way I have chosen reads the easiest.
1. By the armi of voidness, tathatsii is struck down. The store of illusioniiiis entirely taken and
' PK : In his rendition this line reads as; " The golden ... house has been attacked by Suchness..." (214). From Munidatta, the "golden house" is described as being the third void, which is figuratively known as house (PK 214). This is another homonym, and
PK offers that the alternative meaning should be 'vZsanZ', which could be read as "psychic impressions" (56). -Munidatta comments "Slokapalabdhih.. .vzsang-8gZram " (PK 53). -Moj: Reads " 'Void' is my residence...."This reading does not imply or explain giinyata (the Void) in the same detail that PK does (Moj 75).
" PK: The "Suchness"
is the congenital fault, which consists of ccpsychic-impressions"
that have been struck down with the sword of suchness by the Yogin (214).
-Moj: Translates 'tathata' as both "thatness" and ccsuchness."He regards this as beingthe final abode. In order to enter into this abode, one must go through the stage h o w n as 'Yuganaddha' . This is when the body, mind and speech enters the final abode and then comes back down to samsZira, and has knowledge of the meaning of s a m v ~ t iand paramgrtha united (75).
PK:This is usually characterized by the attachment to sense-objects(214).
-Moj: Reads '1 destroyed the storehouse of illusion." This is a simple translation of the Bengali and is therefore missing some of the depth of other translations. He does note that ''The storehouse of illusion" is representative of the mundane world. He states that when the influence and attraction of mundane objects agitate our mind, it leads to illusion, sorrow and disappointment, which in turn, culminates in death (75). iv PK:
The word "everything7' implies the triple worlds. He notes that Munidatta implies
this line means 'the entire delusion,... was taken away' (2 14). 2. He is sleepingi without feeling the distinction of self and non-self. With Sahaja, the naked Klnha sleeps."
' PK: The Yogin sleeps that sleep of Simultaneously arisen Bliss (2 14). - Moj: Concurs (75). "
Moj: Reads this line as; "KBnhupZida7s naked mind easily falls asleep" (75). See endnote three.
3. Without consciousness of pain he fell deeply asleep. Everything successfully donei he pleasurably slept."
PK- "Having purified the three worlds" (215). -Moj: "All connections with the material world have been severed" (75). "
PK:This is the sleep of Mah&?ukha(215).
4. In a dream I saw the three worlds void, .Without the revolving' of coming and going."
Reads "...setting everything free...." This implies that the sun and moon have been
destroyed, thereby causing the vital-breath of avadhfiti to enter the Simultaneously arisen Bliss (21 5).
-Moj: Reads "...it is like an oil-milI.. .." He believes that the oil-mill and the cakra are commonly used in Bengali poetry to represent the world (76).
" PK: This is birth and death (215). 5. I shall take and make the revered JZIandhari a witness, The learned acharyas do not look in my direction.'
' Moj: The lmowledge of the Brahman
scholars are bound to the limits of their texts
(76). It could also refer to Buddhist scholars, as this title would have been the
equivalent to a degree. e. Mahzmudra depictions in sandhabhasa
In this CaryE, line one reads: By the arm of voidness, tathata is struck down. The store of illusion is entirely taken and consumed. The arms of Siinyatz destroy the clinging to the idea of meditation on t a t hat 8 . This
could also indicate that by realizing giinyat Z of gfinyat 8,duality is destroyed. Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen explains that in one of the preparatory practices of attaining M a h ~ m u d r athe , realization of non-duality is key. Of the preparatory practices, this would be categorized under the heading of "Rehge". He believes that this is one of the most essential of the practices. One must orient themselves on the path to awakenment
and in order to do this, one must no longer be distracted by the cycle of samsara (Kijnchog Gyaltsen 14). The second line further supports this idea: He is sleeping without feeling the distinction of self and non-self. With Sahaja the naked KZnha sleeps.
Chang explains that the practitioner should try to maintain this state of awareness that Mahamudra brings. It is important that the practice of Mahamudra continues while in
sleep and while in dreams (Chang 43). Upon realizing non-duality of self and non-self, the Master sleeps stripped naked of a11 defilements. This could also mean that Kznha
enters samsSira (sleep) fiee from duality, thus he is not bound to samsara.
4. C A R Y A FORTY: Futility of Religiosity a. Part one: About the author: KZphu
See CaryZ nine b. Part Two: Textual Studies and translation
1)jo mana goeraa &laj ~ l H / Hgama p t h i b t h a q t h ~ r n & l ~ ~ / / 2) b h q a kdisE. sahaja bolabz jzyad/ kzab5kaciae jasu ?a samzYaf// 3) 5le. guru uesaY sisa / bzkpathztita kzhibag kisa// 4) je taih boli t e tabi tala/ guru boba se sisz M a / / 5) bhaqaY k.dHnha jina raana bi k a i ' s ~ / kElG bobai sanbohia j a i s ~ / / --
Sha: Understands this as 'goaba'. Muk states that this type of mistransliteration is not uncommon within the texts. Sen: Reads 'pothz', which he takes from the ASB.
" PK and Sen use this rendition. The alternative is what Muk refers to as the "nonSanskrit" form of the text; 'istH' or 'itthl'. Sha, Moj and Muk favor this reading- PK doesn't think that this emendation makes any sense- He uses the Tibetan, for support stating that with 't [email protected] hSrnSlHy,(ASB) is orthographically plausible. However, 'istLrn~lBy(Sastri's text); which he translates to 'pile of bricks', is not etymologically nor semantically valid (PK 232). Sha: 'j8i7.
Sha and Sen: 'k& %ha: 'samZiY.
' PK reverses the word order of these two words. c. Translations: 1. Whatever is the object of the mind, it is all illusion; The Agama texts and the m Z l Z are all falsehood. 2. Say how the Sahaja can be spoken of;
Where the body, the speech and the heart-mind are not united. 3. In vain the Guru instructs his disciple; How can that which is beyond speech be explained? 4. The more it is explained, the more false it becomes, The Guru is dumb and the disciple is deaf. 5. How shall K-&a speak of the Jewel of the Jina? Just as the deaf is guided by the dumb.
1. Whatever is the object of the mind, it is all illusion;' The Agama texts and the m l l L are all falsehood."
PK: The senses are caught in a net of imagination and false ideas.
" Moj: He mentions that the Sahaja Buddhists often criticized the Brahmins and their orthodox and conventional viewpoint. In fact, many depicted Brahmins as having a distorted viewpoints. Symbols of the Brahmins, such as the Agama texts, and what Moj refers to as the istZmHl$ (see footnote C) were often slandered (80). Conversely, the Agama can be seen as the Hinayzna Siitra and the mBlB could be the Vajraygna texts. 2. Say how the sahajai can be spoken of;" Where the body, the speech and the heart-mind are not united."' i
PK: Supreme Gnosis (23 1).
" PK: In the Vedas (23 1).
PK: How can there be a Sahaja if it does not enter body, speech, and mind (23 1).
3. In vain the Guru instructs his disciple; How can that which is beyond speech be explained?'
' Self-explanatory. 4. The more it is explained, the more false it becomes,' The Guru is dumb and the disciple is deaf."
PK: Reads "...that which is called 'Simultaneously-arisen' by mere assertion "It is", has the form of non-being..."(23 1).
" PK: The Vajraguru is reserved in regards to this dharma. For his disciple, as nothing
said, nothing is heard (23 1).
-Moj: Being that the nature of Sahaja cannot be defined, nor is it accessible to our minds, nor expressible by speech, it is to be initiated within (Svasamvedya). Thusly the Master is dumb, as he cannot explain or express Sahaja by speech. Just as the disciple is deaf, for whatever the Master speaks of, remains beyond the perception of the disciple (80). 5. How shall KSnha speak of the Jewel of the ~ i n a ? ' Just as the deaf is guided by the dumb."
PK: The fourth Bliss (23 l), which is 'caturt hgnanda'. Munidatta comments 'ratim anantam anuttara-sukham tanoti iti" (PK 58).
PK: "AS the dumb instructs the deaf by means of signs...thus though far away the True Guru gives the disciple Great Bliss through the power of passion" ( 23 1).
e. MahZimudra depictions in sandhabh6~H
The f i s t line reads: Whatever is the object of the mind is all illusion; The Agama texts and the mB1S are all falsehood. The illusion that the mind sees is samssra. Eone is clinging to that illusion, then the Mahgmudra practice of the equilibrium of the body, breathing and the headmind
(non-clinging) cannot be accomplished (Chokyi Rinpoche 44). All objects that are clung to are false, including the four truths, the middle path, and so forth. Therefor the Agarnas (siitras) and the mZlEs (tantras) are also false, so do not cling to them. Say how the Sahaja can be spoken of; Where the body, the speech and the heart-mind are not united. Sabaja is the essence, and it is ineffable. Therefor it cannot be spoken oE The second line
of this couplet refers to scholars. The teachings of scholars may be fallible, as the scholars may not have realized Mahiimudra. The remainder of the song seems to address how this message can be conveyed.
In vain the Guru instructs his disciple; How can that which is beyond speech be explained? The more it is explained, the more false it becomes, The Guru is dumb and the disciple is deaf. How shall K ~ n h aspeak of the Jewel of the Jina? Just as the deaf is guided by the dumb.
The "Jewel of the Jina7'is the M a h ~ m u d r aThese . lines express the fact that Mahgmudra cannot be expressed through the duality of language. The more language, , further it gets fkom its true which is in itself dual, is used to explain M a h ~ m u d r athe
meaning. This is supported in Guenther's study of N ~ r o p a .In this text, N ~ r o p ais instructed by his guru Tilopa, that:
The blind do not see by tarrying And the deaf hear not The Dumb do not understand the meaning And the lame walk not. A tree does not grow roots And MahSmudra is not understood (Guenther, Naropa 86).
In this manner Nsropa was instructed to act in a way that is beyond words and thought. It would seem that the same message is being conveyed in this Carya as well.
5. CARYA FORTY-TWO: Life and Death
a. Part one: About the author: KZnha See CaryZi nine
b. Part Two: Textual Studies and translation
1) cia sahaje Quqaas a m p u n n ~ / k ~ n d b ibiyogb m Z hohi bisann8// 2) bhana ka'ise kanha n ~ h i / pha;ai. anudinac tailoed sam8ie// 3) mutg acchantef loa na pekai'/ dudha rnZjhE l a ~ aFa cchants dekhai.// 4) mehH acchante loa na pekhai'/ dudha mZjhE lara achamtz ?a dekhaY// 5) bhaba jHi na &bai ethug koi/ Bisa bhabe bilasai lianhila joi// a
Sen: 'gune'. Sen: 'yoe'. Sen: 'anudinanga'. Sha: 'teloe'. Sen and Muk: 'pamBi.' Muk thinks that this version can be traced from the Sanskrit.
PK doesn't suppose that Sen's version exists (PK 137). Sha: 'Ecchante'. Sha and Muk: 'esu'. c. Translations:
1. The heart-mind is complete1in the void of Sahaja, Do not grieve at the separation of the skandhas. 2. Say how Kanha should not endure! He is ever manifestZhe enters the three worlds. 3. The fool is distressed upon seeing the decay of objects, However, does the broken wave dry up the ocean?
4. Although humanity is present, the fool doesn't find it. Within the milk fat there is no cream to be seen3 5. In this world, no one goes or comes here, Such nature enjoys Kzqhila, a yogi.
' PK: Reads "spontaneously". PK: Reads "...incessantly shines forth, becoming merged...". Sha: Reads " In the wave of existence all have been drowned".
1. The heart-mindi is complete in the void of ~ahaja," Do not grieve at the separationEiof the skandhas.
PK: The Mind-King (23 8).
" PK: Reads; "The Mind is spontaneously...in plentitude in the ...void." In this case, "spontaneously" is in the "own-form" of its nature at all times. The "void" is the sixteenth void (238). ...
"' PK: Non-existence (238). 2. Say how Kwha should not endure!' ... He is ever manifest," he enters the three worlds."'
Moj: That there is no difference between existence and non-existence. It is a mistake to think that everything ends with the decay of the body (82).
" PK: Reads "...shines forth..", which he takes to be symbolizing that Kiinha playing in the ocean of Absolute truth (238). .-.
"' PK: Which is created in meditation (238). -Moj: The three worlds are; Devaloka (realm of gods), Manusaloka (world of humans), and Asuraloka (abode of titans) (82). 3. The fool is distressed upon seeing the decay of objects, However, does the broken wave dry up the ocean?'
' Moj: Just as the waves rise and merge into the ocean, so do our notions of the external world rise and merge again. Being that waves cannot swallow the water, our ideas of the external world cannot destroy the world of perception (82)4. Although humanity is present, the fool doesn't find it.' Within the milkiifat there is no cream to be seen.
PK: Perhaps "it9' is Bliss (239).
" Moj: As cream is hidden in milk, so non-existence (abhzva) is hidden in existence
5. In this world, no one goes or comes here, Such nature enjoys Kqhila, a yogi.
' PK: By knowing the "own-being"
of existence (239).
e. MahZimudra depictions in sandhabhzga
In order to reach awakenment, one must break the notion of "duality". It is a very common theme in the Mahamudra readings. The first line: The heart-mind is complete in the void of Sahaja, Do not grieve at the separation of the skandhas. Would suggest that citta is complete in Sahaja. The separation of the skandhas would indicate death. So by realizing Sahaja one goes beyond death.
The second line: Say how Kznha should not endure! He is ever manifest, he enters the three worlds. K ~ n h has a realized Sahaja. Since the Sahaja is equated to the Dharmakiiya, and the Dharmaksya is "ever manifest" in the "three worlds", then Kznha too is ever manifest
in the three worlds.
The fool is distressed upon seeing the decay of objects However, does the broken wave dry up the ocean? Just as those who do not know Mahzrnudra see only the illusion of death and re-birth, so does the sight of decay distress the fool. Just as the broken wave is only a temporary effect of causes, so too are all objects. The find line restates this thought:
In this world, no one goes or comes here, Such nature enjoys Ksnhila, a [email protected], Released fkom the cycle of samsSra, Kznha resides in the state of awakenment.
6. CARYAF?FTEEN: A Benighted Traveler
a. Part one: About the author: ~ ~ n t i ~ Z n t (also i referred to as R a t n ~ k a r a ~ ~ nist iof ) , the sixth instruction lineage, the teachings originating with Maiijjugri, and passing down through JiiHnapEda, Dipankarabhadra, Anandagarbayand Tha-ga-na, before reaching s5ntipa (BA 373). TZiranEtha explains that this lineage deals with the "Word Tradition," which he relates
with the Lineage of Tantra Exposition, as mentioned in the BA. THranHtha names Nzropa as h n t i's primary instructor. The doctrine that ~
~i taught n twas in complete
accord with the dharma master Asanga (Templeman, Seven Instruction Lineages 67). Robinson names Togcepa as being ~ ~ n t imain ' s instructor. Which is divergent &om T&anZtha7s records (62). Robinson does not even include Togcepa in his discourses about the eighty-eight Mahasiddhas. These accounts are anomalous to the above lineage for h n t i , and both are fkom the BA. Robinson expatiates that Vikramasila was s&nt.i7s place of instruction. He claims that the Tibetan text, Robinson's primary source, makes no mention of the t z n t r a that &ti
learned (285). There seems to be no evidence in
either the BA or in Guenther's, Life and Teachings of Naropa, to support either claim, so it remains uncertain which account is the more accurate. b. Part Two: Textual Studies and translation
1) saa sanbeanab sarua bizretGCalakkhad lakkhana na j ~ i / je je ujiibate gels anzbata b h a X sol?// 2) kulE kula mB hoi re mwhH ujEbZca samsErf / bHla tilaf eku b&ag qa b h d a h a r ~ j a p a t h akaqdh&8// 3) mZlmohH samudzre anta na bujhasi t h & h l / ageh nzba na bhels disaai b h ~ n t i jna pucchasi nlhZ// 4) sunH pBnatara uha na disaik bhEnti na bzsasi j ~ a n t e /
e t h d iita rnahzsiddhi sijhaem ujti b&ta j&nte// 5) bsma dshina do b8tZ c h g ~ S i ~ n t i "bolathiO samkeliu?/ [email protected] na g u m E kharatariP na hoi Hkhi bujiaq [email protected] j8iu// a
Sha makes a scribal mistake in his book and writes in Bengali 'rHma' rather than 'rZga .'
In Muk and PK the transliteration, they favor the nasal sound of 'rh,' rather than the Bengali transcript of 'n. '
'Sen agrees with Bag's transliteration of 'bi8retG' as 'bi8rG ,' all others agree with the transliteration given. Both Muk and PK exclude the 'a' at the end of this word.
PK reads this as 'sambh&rgY. He attributes the alternate reading of 'saqs&rayto Sastri The impact of this is explained in the translations of this Carya.
Muk and Sen transliterates this as 'bhina.' Sen uses the original transcript transliteration 'bznlcu.' Moj emends this to read 'Bge,' and Sen offers this as an option.
' Sha and Moj both transliterate this as 'disai.' j ASB
gives this version. Muk believes this to be a scribal error. He supports this by
using the next line's rendering of this same word.
Sen and Muk transliterates it as 'disai.'
' Everyone seems to have a different transliteration of this word. Sen transliterates this as 'etha ,' as does Sha. Muk transliterates this as 'e9aY7and Moj as 'esa' (the Sastri transliteration), and PK as 'eth8' (fiom Munidatta' s commentary).
Sha: 'sijhai.' n
Sen: 'cchsri santi,' fiom the ASB.
Sen, again offers an alternate transliteration. He renders this word as 'biilatha .' The transliteration of this word as 'bolathi' stems from the Tibetan translation of it as (*bol), as "to speak." Furthermore, in ASB there seems to be an 'u' following 'bulatha.' This is transliterated by some along with the word, as well as separate from 'bidatha .'
Sen: ' k h a ~ a b h a ~ i ' . Sen: 'bujhia.' c. Translations: 1) In the essential analysis of self-realization that which is without character,' cannot be characterized. Whoever goes along the straight path does not return. 2) Do not be on the banks,2 Oh fool, travel along the straight path of s a m s ~ r 8 ? child: do not err on the crooked path, (not even as much as a sesarnum seed),' the royal path is a curtained highway of steepness (?)! 3) In the ocean of delusion and unawareness, neither limit nor depth can be discerned, There is no boat before you, and foolishly, you do not ask the Yogin. 4) There is no indication of the whereabouts of the Void, yet setting upon the path, there is no experience of error, The eight esoteric powers are obtained by the travelling of the straight path. 5) Forgoing the left and the right path, S ~ n t says i contentedly; " The ghats (banks) have no long grass (weeds), no uneven land: and with closed eyes you comprehensivelytravel the path.
PK adds an extra explanation in his transliteration. He reads this passage as " One's own nature (being) self experiencing, that which is without characteristics cannot be characterized by means of discursive thought..."(136). 2
Although logically there seems to be no connection to a path and banks, this is the translation by all the aforementioned scholars of 'kule kula'.
' Although it seems evident that the word 'sa~psHra'is in the Bengali, this word does not seem to manifest itself in any of the translations. Perhaps because it seems to confuse
the meaning of the song. Only Moj makes an attempt by inserting " the Sahaja Waf' into the reading. This would be incorrect as, the " straight path" is translated £?om 'ujfib%$H7,not from 'Sahaja'. When spoken, it could be mistaken for 'SojH', which in contemporary Bengali means "straight" or "kasy".PK's reading amended the transliteration to 'sambhLr%'. He confirms the reading to be '"...samsHra is confirmed by...[the Tibetan]...'who wanders in samsZraY;wunidatta] has sambh%o" (137). Yet,
PK leaves this out of his translation. Muk d e k e s ' s a m s k a ' as " home". Modem Bengali defines it as 'sangs%aYor 'samsara'; " n. World; worldly concerns; household; domestic life; family; wife and children"@ev, Ben: to Eng 1088). 3
PK does not believe that this is the true rendition of the word, He takes the Tibetan
reading which translates to "...a hair" (137). Which correlates to CaryZ Nine. Oddly, in
Nine, the transliteration was 'bal5' and here the transliteration is 'biiila'. Considering the topic of this verse, the translation " child or fool" does seem to fit here, although PK's rendering of" ...Do not err...(as much as a) hair..." is also plausible (136). 5
PK translates this as " a single grain o f sesamum" (137), fiorn the Tibetan. In the A.T. Dev's dictionary, the contemporary meaning given is; "n. Sesamurn; sesame; ...a mole; fieckle, spot, a very small quantity; an eightieth part of a cower (shell); a mament ..." @ev, Ben4 to Enq 547). The main idea is that the fool/child should not wander AT
ALL, fiom the path, The word ' kandhErF is the most codbsing of the entire line. There are several
suggestions given regarding the meaning. However, none seem to make any sense. PK
in his work provides an in depth explanation. Despite the different conditions he suggests that not one of them seem to give a satisfactory definition. Sha renders this as
" royal camp", where as Sen explains this as a screen style fencing of a passage way, as
used in Indian ceremonies. Moj's translation is very similar to Sen, which is a royal road enclosed by a tent. Moj refers to "trinkets" that lure the fool, it is not clear where this translation came fiom. Muk translates 'kaqlhwa' as " steepness", however, this explanations seems to be unlikely. Due to variety of readings of this line, the meaning remains opaque. This word does not appear in the Bengali dictionary. It could be suggested that in India, a cloth '%all" would be used to protect the King fkom seeing terrible things and the people could not see his c~highness". 7
In the translations given by Sen and Sha, there is mention of "police stations", "tolltakers", "pickets" and " disturbances". These are the meanings given to the word 'guma'. These definitions can perhaps be attributed to the readings of Munidatta's Tibetan commentary, " Narrow point and toll-booth" (PK 138). However, in the Bengali dictionary the meaning of this word is given as "...concealed; secret; untraced..." @ev, Bens to Eng 382). An alternate option for the implication of Sha and Sen's definitions could result &om an alternative meaning of 'ghat', which is; "...fault; offense; defiancy" @ev, Bene to Eng 403). Sen defines 'ghzta' as riverbank in his vocabulary (37), yet he does not use this in his transliterated sentence. Sha' s reading has "... the toll-station of the river" (48). The reading of '"...uneven banks" is taken &om
PK's translation. He infers that ' k h a ~ a t a '~implies i this meaning. Sen reads t i s as "
up and down", perhaps referring to the steps of the ghZit, and Muk reads this as rough "
ground", Sha chooses to translate this as tall grass nor shallow water". PK believes "
this last one is closest to the correct reading. He supports this with Munidatta's Sanskrit
(bzma dahina jo khsla bikhalz) which he translates as "the ditches and holes on the left and the right (bank)," which lead to the above transIation (PK 138).
1)In the essential analysis of self-realizationi that which is without character, cannot be characterised. Whoever goes along the straight pathiidoes not i
PK: This is achieved by the union of the vajra and the lotus (136).
-Moj: Believes that the essence of this line is the idea that realization of Sahaja is beyond our five senses and therefore it cannot be expressed by language (50). "
PK: This is the avadhiiti of the BLiss of Cessation (136). He believes this word can be interpreted on two different levels. The first could be read as the "non-returner," perhaps in relation to an Arhat, and secondly it indicates someone '%without mental disturbances" (59).
"' PK: By his own analysis, this is when the yogi becomes fiee fiorn mental disturbances. Munidatta's explanation is that this is when the yogin becomes immersed in the lotus pool of the ~ n a n d a c a k r a(136). -Moj : Those who have followed the Sahaja path and have reached the other shore, do not return, as they have experienced Supreme Bliss. Truth being something that is self-
realized, there cannot be any question of its transcendental nature (SO), -Dasgupta concurs with Moj 's analysis (ORC 52). 2) Do not be on the banks,' Oh fool, travel along the straight path of sarpsHrH. Child, do not err on the crooked path," (not even as much as a) sesamum seed, the royal pathiiiis a curtained highway of steepness(?).iv
PK: This is the body (136). Munidatta defines this as 'pratyeka-Sarira,' "for everyone, that which is easily destroyed. i-e. the body"(Monier-Williams 1057,664; PK 44).
PK: Munidatta renders this as "... of the left and the right" (136).
The Bengali verse employs the term 'rzjapt ha'. Dasgupta mentions that the highest
type of yoga performed by the N ~ t Siddhas h was the REja-yoga. This was a meditative
yoga. It is possible that the composer was making allusions to this type of yoga, for in the NZt ha tradition, awakenment comes first in the form of the perfect body, and then in the divine body (ORC 218-19). This theory is speculative, however, it would provide a connection with the odd usage of 'sams8ra7 (if it is indeed correctly placed in this line, see footnote ).
- Moj: Believes that this is the "...royal road for attaining perfection." (50). iv
PK: Munidatta render this as "...as the universal monarch enters his pleasure-garden by means of a gold-paved avenue, thus the yogin enters the lotus-park of the calsra of Great Bliss by means of the avadhtiti" (136).
-Dasgupta refers to this as "...the royal road for attaining perfection." h n t i is warning the beginner fiom straying from the "straight path" (ORC 52). 3) In the ocean of delusion and unawareness, neither limit nor depth can be discerned, There is no boat' before you, and foolishly, you do not ask the yogin."
' PK: The word of the True Guru (136). ii
PK: Who is the True Guru (136). Munidatta states, 'nau-bhelaka-Edi-upSyaY;"There is no means by boat~raft".
-Moj: The Guru is the only guide for the yogin on the path to Mahssukha. He states; "Those who do not drink to their heart's content the nectar of the instructions of the
Guru, die of thirst like fools deceived by the mirage of the desert" (50). 4) There is no indication of the whereabouts of the void,' yet setting upon the path, there is no experience of error, The eight esoteric powers are obtained by the travelling of the straight path.
' PK: The void is the Clear Light (136). -Moj: Renders this as a "lonesome plain." He explains that this is a world of essencelessness, a world of vacuity without an end (50).
5) Forgoing the left and the right path,i h n t i says contentedly; " The ghats (banks) have no long grass (weeds), ... no uneven land, and with closed eyesiiyou comprehensively travel the path."' PK: This is the two-fold false appearance (136). *I
PK- Yugananddha (the integration of all duality into unity), is perceived with the yogins unblinking eyes (136 ) .
"' PK: The purified avadhfiti of the Bliss of Cessation (136). e. Mahzmudra depictions in sandhabhzsa This particular song is saturated with imagery that depicts the Mahamudra. It would seem that the main objective of this CaryZ refers to the attachment to thought, or no thought. The first few lines read:
In the essential anaIysis of self-realization, that which is without character cannot be characterized. Whoever goes along the straight path does not return. Do not be on the banks, Oh fool, travel along the straight path of samsEra . Child, do not err on the crooked path, (not even as much as a sesamum seed), the royal path is a curtained highway of steepness (?).
Chang states that it is essential to know that Mahsmudra practice, which is ofkn depicted as the path, is not different fkom Mahgmudra accomplisfiment. It is the essence of naturalness, do not cling to the duality of concepts. Furthermore, those who try
and constantly correct themselves on this path are again wandering away from Mahgmudra (Chang 40). The usage of the word "Child" is significant as Guenther explains. An individual who practices the path and all vibrations converge, stay, and dissolve into a central pathway, and the four signs of the three types of nothingness appear and finally a radiant light shines, this individual is called the "child" (Guenther
Naropa 84). Forgoing the left and the right path, h n t i says contentedly; '' The ghats (banks) have no long grass (weeds), no uneven land, and with closed eyes you comprehensively travel the path.
By travelling the middle path, there will be no obstructions in achieving Mahsmudra. There is no indication of the whereabouts of the Void, yet setting upon the path, there is no experience of error, This line shows that the 5iinyatE of Siinyats (the void of the void) transcends 4tinyat5 (void), thus there is "no error".
7. CARYKTWENTY-EIGHT: A Couple of Savara Lovers a. Part one: About the author: ~ a v a r i ~ a ~ a v a r i ~~a a, v a r or a ~ a b a r athe , foremost of which this song refers to him as, is believed to have been a hunter near Mount Vikrama (Robinson 37). Or perhaps, as TLranZtha believes, the mountain was Sriparvata (Ternpleman, Seven Instruction Lineages 8). There seems to be a debate as to who savaripa7sprimary instructor was. Tzranztha declares Nagsj u n a to be SavaripaYsinstructor, whereas Robinson's translations lead him to recognize Avalokitegvara as the source of his doctrine (Robinson 38). The BA states that sabarip%da7steachings follow those of Saraha, whose doctrine was of MahZmudrZ, which sabaripZi then taught to Maitripa (BA 841). Also, he seems to have taught Sadanga-yoga to Vibhfiticandra (BA 747).
T z r a n ~ t h also a recognizes AvalokiteSvara as bestowing instructions upon ~ a v a r a . However, it was TLranEthaysbelief that NSgLjuna was the first to teach Savara. Meeting in East Bengal, Nagsj u n a showed the child s a v a r a the image of the Buddha Ratnamati in a minor. The image then changed so that the child saw himself burning in hell fires. In this manner did ~ a v a r come a under NZgZrjuna's instructions. The Master then told his disciple to go to the southern mountains and practice Yuganaddhaprakgsa, which Ternpleman translates as "The unity of opposites", with his two wives who were also dakinis (Templeman, The Life of Krsnacarva 10511.38).
6. Part Two: Textual Studies and translation
1) iics ticsb pabata tahT basaY sabarl bSli/ morangi picchad parahina sabari gibata guiijari m ~ h// 2) umata sabaro pZgala sabaro mH kara guli g u h ~ d ftohorif/ nia g h a r i g @me sahaja sundari// 3) nBnH tarubara maiilila re gaanata lsgeli d ~ l i / ekeli sabari e bana hindaf karna kundala bajra d h ~ r i / / 4) tia dhBu khHta parilZig sabaro mahssukhe seji c h ~ i l i / sabaro bhujanga nairzmani dari p e h m a \ ~ t i pohaili// 5) hiai t g b o l ~mahzsuhe kzpuba k h ~ i / suna nirsmang kanthe lays mahzsuhe rHti p o h ~ i / / 6 ) gurubska pufica~kbindha niamana b%ne/ eke Sura sandhZinG bindhaha bindhaha1 parama nib1n8// 7) umata sabaro garuH rose/ giribaram sihara szndhi paysantu sabaro lorib a kaYse/ a
The graphology of this word is quite varied. The above rendition is &om Sen. Sha provides some other options, 'b2irayi7 is his preference. Another option is the Tibetan, which would indicate 'baaat i'. Another version is 'balSddi7. In any case, the meaning seems to be unaltered, There are several dialectical options given for how this word might appear. The version given above is Sen's version, as it seems to have the most common elements. Muk reads this as 'Cc5 ?icZ and Moj uses 'uc8 uc8.' PK's reading agrees with Sen's.
Muk reads this as 't5hi" and Moj reads this as 'tahi,' the above is the one used by both Sen and PK.
This word is absent in Sen's translation. Every reading has a different transliteration of this word. Sen gives 'guh8yya ,' Sha reads 'guhm,' Muk's is 'guhEda,' which concurs with PK's, and Moj has 'guhLyZ.'
PK moves this to be the first word of the next line. Also he reads it as 'tohauri.' Sen offers the option of 'pails'.
An alternate for this word is 'pernha7. This type of consonant reversal often occurs when transliterating a conjunction of consonants.
' Sen utilizes 'hiZ7, which appears in the Sanskrit commentary. j Sha alters his k
transliteration to 'suna nairlmani.'
Moj transliterates this as 'punchi&.'
' Sen uses 'bindhahu,'
fiom ASB, and only reads it once. The common transliteration is
the one given above.
" Sen reads this as 'girbibara.' c. Translations: 1. High on the lofty mountain the ~ a v a r agirl resides, She wears the tail feathers of a peacock and a garland of gusja berries, 2. Oh drunken ~avara,Oh maddened savara,' please do not make noise! Your own wife is the ~avaragirl, the Sahajasundari (the beautiful woman of the Simultaneously arisen). 3. Various trees2 are in blossom, their branches reach up to the sky; i the wilderness with earrings and the Vajra. The lone ~ a v a rwanders 4. The bed3 of the three mystic essences was prepared, the ~ a v a r spread a the bed with intense delights4 ~ a v a r the a paramour and the delightfil woman passed the night to dawn? 5. The heart of the betel-leaf and the camphor is cons~rned.~ NirBtrnaqi; the void, embraces his neck and the night passes to dawn.7 6. Let the words of the guru be the tail feathers of the arrow that pierces your mind. With one shot of the arrow, pierce nirvana.' 7. ~ a v a r is a senseless with anger, Thus entering a crevice in the peak of the highest mountains, how shall he move about?g
Sen does not read this as a vocative sentence.
Sha translates 'tarubara' here as "good plants." In CaryZ One he renders 'tarubara' to mean "'tree", which is the common translation.
PK reads this as "couch." According to PK, 'Mahzsisulihe' can be translated as an instrumental, which is confirmed by the translation of the CaryZgiti. However, Munidatta's Sansfit, 'tena mahzsukhena Ciaygm b t v Z ' can be alternately be matched with 'MahBsukhaYand 'CiayE,' which is how it is understood in the Tibetan.
In this case, the line could be read as " The couch of the Three Realms was prepared." PK asserts that if the Tibetan genitivepo 'i is made instrumental, then the translation would match Munidatta's word for word (184). 4
PK translates 'Mah~sukhe'here as "erotic play."
PK proposes that in accordance with the Tibetan, this should not be rendered as a woman who sells her body, but as a beautifidly forrned woman (184).
PK again reads "erotic play" rather than "consumed."
'PK renders this line as; "...the
beautiful delightful woman embraces the neck in erotic
play, night became dawn." He suggests that the words 'nai-rLmani7 in fact means "gladden, give pleasure by sexual union." This, he maintains, is supported by the following line ('suna nair', which corresponds to 'sahaja sundari') (184).
PK read this as a vocative sentence.
P K explains that 'lo~.iba'should be read as hture rather than passive, as Sha and Sen read it; thereby changing the reading to "moves abouty7as opposed to " how shall we find him."
1. High on the lofty mountaini the ~ a v a r a girliiresides, She wears the tail feathersiiiof a peacock and a garland of g-ja
' PK: This is the yogin's spinal column (181). -Munidatta: svakaya- kaqk8la-dads (PK 53).
-Moj :Quotes the Sahaja-yogin in saying that the mountain is a symbol of the body, the peak is the MahSsukhacakra, which is placed above the spinal column (64). -Dasgupta concurs with Moj (ORC 105).
" PK: She is the Gnosis-seal, she is another form of Nairatma. Munidatta states that the letter following 'say is 'ha,' which represents the Vajradhara. The mistress of Vajradhara7shome is the Gnosis-seal (NairZtma, who is born of the letter 'a') (18 1). This could also be one of the types of words that are given a false etymology by Munidatta, 'pavidhara' (PK 58). -Munidatta: ' g ~ h i gj6BnamudrH nairltm8' ,"the householder of the knowledge mudrz is Nairgt mZ" (PK 42).
-Moj: Also states that she is representative of NairZtmZ (64). -..
"' PK: These symbolize discursive thought that vary endlessly (181). -PK:Takes the line "...she wears" to imply "cover with her own form77(181). -Munidatta: vicitra-paksa-vikalpa (PK 52).
-Moj: Depicts this as liberation. Conversley, it could also be culture's perception of the animate and inanimate world, which have many facets. Much like multi-coloured peacock feathers (65). iv
PK: The guiija berries are secret mantras. It is implied in the above rendition that the garland hangs around the neck, PK states it specifically and mentions that this neck is the sambhogacakra (18 1).
-Munidatta: Comments 'guhya-mantra-msliks' (PK 52), which would make this a homonym. Where 'guiij8' would be the berry, and 'guhya-mantras' are secret mantras, which Munidatta notes (PK 56). -Moj: He states that the guEj8 flowers are a type of herb that grows (generally) on hilly tracts. In the countryside, the flowers are used in garlands and the berries are used to make liquor (65). 2. Oh drunken savara,' Oh maddened savara," please do not make noise!"' Your own wife is the ~ a v a r agirl, the Sahajasundari (the beautiful woman of the Simultaneously arisen).'"
PK believes that NairHtmH speaks this to her consort. The drunken yogin represents the mind being agitated by the senses (182). -Munidatta: bhsvaka (PK 49). "
PK. The union of wisdom and means (182).
-Moj: Takes this statement to mean the newly consecrated yogin who is "mad for nirvsna" (64). ---
"' PK: The discursive thoughts of '%bliss'and so forth (182). -Moj: Do not revel in worldly pleasures (64). " PK:
Again he reminds the reader that she is the Gnosis-seal(182).
-Munidatta: j iiZnamudr8 (PK 42).
3. Various trees are in blossom, their branchesi reach up to the sky; ii The lone Savari wanders the wildernessiiiwith earrings and the ~ a j r a . "
' PK notes Munidatta's commentary states for "trees", 'k~ya-sumerohtaruvaram avidyz-riipam'. This means "the body accord.... the tree....form.". The "branches" are
the 'paiica-skhanda'. The five elements are: 1) rupa (matter, which includes the six elements of the body) 2) vedan8:(emotion) 3) samjEZ:@erception) 4) samskara:(forces or energies) 5) vijii8na:(consciousness) (Chang 35n.5; PK 42).
" PK: 'Various"
means the multiple ways of achieving bliss, such as the mantra of Bliss,
and so forth. 'Trees" are to represent ignorance. The branches are the five skandhas
(sense organs), which are dissolving ("reaching") into the clear light of bliss ("sky")
-Moj: The 'Trees" and '~b1ossorns"are the body and its skandhas. When the yogin's mind is agitated by the everyday occurrences in the mundane world, the agitation leads to sorrow, death and re-birth. The "sky" is nirvana ,and is blocked by these mundane
"' PK: NairZittmZ plays about in the mountain of the body (182). -Munidatta: ksya-parvata-vana (PK 46). -Moj: Points out that the ~ a v a r must a live in the forest because she is not able to reside where the upper caste people reside. This parallels N a i r ~ t m 4who also lives outside the boundaries of formal religions, she is beyond description and interpretation (65).
PK: The earrings are the Five Buddhas (or bone-ornaments), and the Vajra is the Vajra-
4. The bed of the three mystic essences was prepared,i the ~ a v a r a spread the bed with intense delight." savaraiiithe paramour and the delightful woman passed the night to dawn."
PK: The three realms are body, speech and mind, which the Clear Light of Bliss (c'prepared") destroys (I 82).
-Moj: Renders this as as cot of three metals," which is still the body, speech and mind. "
He states that in a bridal chamber, the groom chews a betel leaf and lays on the cot, etc. However, like the bridegroom does not need the cot or the betel-leaf, etc, the yogin does not need the externals like the body, speech and mind. The main point is the sexual union, is the goal, and the union with Nairstmz is the yogin's main goal (65-6). "
PK: Great Bliss (182).
"' Dasgupta: Adds "serpent-like"
in his description of Savara. The Savara is the citta
(ORC 106). -Munidatta: Citta-vajra (PK 49). iv
Munidatta: Rajani andakzram prajn&upi5ya-vikalpam (PK 55). Also, there is a
homonym present in the word 'dzri'. It can be read as 'dZrikZi' (harlot), or as 'dZrayati7 (pierces). Conversely, PK notes that 'dsri' can also fall into a category of words that may not be ambiguous at first glance, but in Munidatta's commentaries they are given a false etymology that indicates a hidden meaning (57).
5. The heart of the betel-leaf and the camphor is consumed.' Nirlmaqi the void embraces his neck and the night passes to dawn."
' PK: This is uniting in Yugananda the clear light of bodhicitta (182).
PK: The neck is the sarpbhogacakra. PK adds "erotic blissy7here, and shows that this would indicate the rays of the Clear Light of Bliss. 'Night7'is indicative of the darlcness that are the hindrances of the body, which are destroyed in the "pas(age) of dawn7' (182).
-Munidatta: Of 'rsti' comments 'svakgya-kle6a-tamah' (PK 54). 6. Let the words of the guru be the tail feathers of the arrow that pierces your mind.' With one shot of the arrow," p'lerce nirvana,
' PK: The target of the arrow (which he takes be the arrow of one's own mind) can also be taken as nirvzna (182). -Munidatta: Nija-mano bodhicit ta (PK 52).
-Moj renders this line as the sage advice of the Guru, which like the arrow, is aimed at destroying the hindrances of the body. As the hunter uses the arrows to kill animals, so the yogin should use the advice of the Guru to destroy sorrow and suffering (66).
" PK: As 'Sara'
is a homonym for both sound and arrow, PK states that this means
"...having joined the two, [mind and Nirvanalwith the sound of one tone" (56, 182). -Munidatta: Eka-svara-nirghosa (PK 52). 7. savarai is sencelessiiwith anger,"' Thus entering a crevice in the peak of the highest mountains, how shall he move about?" -
PK: He is the mind-vajra (182). " PK:
The ~ a v a r is a senseless with the drink of coerneregence (182).
"' PK: This is the Bliss of Gnosis (182). " PK:
By dissolving in the cakra that is the lotus pool of Great Bliss, how shall the mind
be found (82)?
-Munidatta: Of 'giribara sihara' he says; 'mahaukha-cakra-nalini-vana' (PK 53).
-Moj: The yogin, having reached the state of Great Bliss, is now beyond the reach of mundane beings (66). e. Mahzmudra depictions in sandhabhSqZ
The first line;
High on the lofty mountain the ~ a v a r girl a resides She wears the tail feathers of a peacock and a garland of guiija berries. The ~ a v a r girl a is kern a wild tribe, and she represents prajfi& which is the result
of realizing Stinyata. The peacock feathers are all seeing, as prajE8 is the insight to all. This line uses the simile of the mountain. Chang explains the mountain as the mind, and names it as on of the five similes of M a h ~ m u d r aexperience (Change 38). Chang explains that in the experience of Mahsmudra, the mind is as steady as a mountain, and it is here that the yogini resides. The following line:
Oh drunken Savara, Oh maddened Savara, please do not make noise! Your own wife is the ~ a v a r agirl, the Sahajasundari (the beautiful woman of the Simultaneously arisen). This line is very straightforward; the ~ a v a r ais realizing Sahaja thou& the aid of his consort. The next line: Various trees are in blossom, their branches reach up to the sky. Here again the simile of the "sky" explains the Mahgmudra experience. Like the sky, the MahHmudra experience is broad and fiee from obstruction (Chang 39).
8. CARYATWENTY-NINE:The Unreal Reality
a. Part one: About the author: LEipZ
LtiipH or Liiyipa is fkom the first lineage of MahSmudrB (Templeman, Seven Instruction Lineages xi). Robinson's account credits an unnamed dzlciqi with LGPH'S training, however, the BA states a different lineage of masters in connection to Liiipa. It
began with the Buddha Cakarasamvara, and was then passed to the female [email protected] Vajrav~rahi.Then finally to LEpz and his disciples (BA 385). Robinson concurs with this lineage, however, Shaw claims that LGpB was initiated by ~ a v a r (Shaw a 134). She
writes that TSiranSitha attributes the beginning of the yogini cult to LGpg (Sha~v 40.111 3 1). Indeed, T s r a n ~ha t does mention ~ a v a r as a LiiipZ7sinstructor, and that he practised the teachings of VajravErIihi (Templeman, Seven Instruction Linea-ees 8). The BA names Liiip6's teachings as A-M-TA (the cycle of Sarhvara), which would be of
the Mother class of tantras @A 233,852, 869). Liiips was a great teacher of the Sampannakramma yoga and founded the Exposition method called 'Dud-jo (BA
b. Part Two: Textual Studies and transIation
1) bhsbanaa hoi abhzba ?a jHi / a%ab sa&bohG ko pati Zi // 2) Lui bhana? batac dulakkha binSin~/ tia dhze bilasai' uha lage n$// 3) jahera bana cihna ruba na j ~ n i / so kake Zgama be B b a t h ~ n i / / 4) klhere kisa bhani mai dibi piricch&/ udaka cHnda jima sHca na micch8// 5) lui bhana; mai bhaiba e a e / jz lay acchama ahera fiha F a disa//
"According to a modem Bengali dictionary; (Sohsba) can also infer ''aSate; condition; circumstance;
idea;...p assion; love; birth; production; probability; gesture" @ev Benn. to E n e 924).
All the above scholars choose to d e h e this word as " being". Sen denotes this as ' Eisa.' Sha amends this to read 'bo~a,'perhaps because he believes this to be read as an adjective, however Muk pronounces the emendation to be unnecessary- Also PK states that Muk's expIanation is missing fkom the sources quoted. d
Another reading is 'uha na j ZnZ.' Muk and Sen have the read it this way, however, PK believes that this is an unnecessary emendation. Both Sha and Moj alter this to read 'kisa.' c. Translations:
1. There is no being, nor is there non-being;' How can anyone believe such teachings?2 2. Lui says: " Oh Fool! Real wisdom is without c~rn~rehension.~ It is in the three realms, (yet) it is difficult to perceive it. 3. Whose colour, form and appearance is not known, How can it be discussed and explained in the Agamas and the Vedas? 4. Of whom shall I ask the question? Like the moon's image reflected in the water, it is neither true nor false." 5. Lui says; " What shall I think?" That which remains to be grasped, is taken without indication of direction. --
Sen reads this as meaning " disappears", PK states that this is clearly a misconception. He determines that the Tibetan and Sanskrit correlate 'hoi' and 'jEi.' Furthermore, PK states that the Tat tva-svabhzva-drsti-git ikE-doha understands 'j Zi' to have the same meaning as 'jan,' " to be born" (189). Sen, in his vocabulary, offers; "obtains" as
an alternative meaning to j' Zi,' and Muk proposes ''goes." Both PK and Moj render
this Iine without giving a direct translation for 'jzi.' From the Bengali; 'samboh5.' This translation comes fiom PK's explanation of the Tibetan reading of this word. He states that this is equivalent to the Tibetan 'sansrgyas,' which he translates as; " to inform, instruct, and teach" (189). Sen's reading agrees with PK's, however, Muk offers "advice" as the meaning of the word, and Moj reads "experience."
The Bengali of this word is 'binana' can be more familiarly read as 'vijiiHnS7 in Sanskrit,
1. There is no being, nor is there non-being;' How can anyone believe such teachings?
' Moj: Being and non-being are described as the "phenomenal world" which is neither existent (as there is no reality that can be found through analysis), nor non-existent (as this would be 'b-real.") There is no paramzrtha-satya, nor samvrttisatya (67).
2. Lui says: cCOhFool! Real wisdom is without comprehension. It is in the three realms,' (yet) it is difficult to perceive it.
PK: Body, speech and mind (188).
- Moj concurs (67). -Dasgupta: The illusory world is neither existent (as there is n reality anywhere), nor is it
non-existent (as non-existence is itself unreal) (ORC 39-40). 3. Whose colour, form and appearance is not known, How can it be discussed and explained in the Agamas and the Vedas?
' Moj: Real wisdom cannot be explained through the scriptures, (the Agamas
Vedas) (67). 4. Of whom shall I ask the question?i Like the moon's image reflected in the water, it is neither true nor false.""
PK: How shall the proof be given (188)? "
PK: This is also the elusive appearance of existing things (188).
-Dasgupta: It is lacking both parmzrtha-satya and samvyti-satya, therefore it is like the moon being reflected in the water (ORC 39-40).
5. Lui says; " What shall I think?" That " which remains to be grasped, is taken without indication of direction."'
' PK: Being that there is neither subject, nor object, nor method of meditation (188). " PK: Is the form of the fourth (188). -.-
"' Moj: The real wisdom of truth cannot be found nor known, as there is nothing to be known within it. The citta (mind) is perfectly tranquil there (67). -Dasgupta: The 'ultimate truth' can never be explained, since there is not any "lmower", nor is there anything "knowabIe", therefore it does not consist of "knowledge". The 'citta' is perfectly tranqd there, because when one practices yoga with one's mind, where the 'citta' goes it is uncertain (ORC 40).
e. MahHmudra depictions in sandhabhSsS This [email protected] is again discussing duality. As was mentioned with the Nzropa exarnpIe, Mahzmudra cannot be realized through language and duality. This was depicted in line one:
There is no being, nor is there non-being; How can anyone believe such teachings?
In the second line, LtiipE states: Oh Fool! Real wisdom is without comprehension. The "fools" that he is referring to are unawakened people. They are still in the realm of
duality, with thoughts of comprehension and non-comprehension.
In the third couplet: Whose colour, form and appearance is not known, How can it be discussed and explained in the A g a m a s and the Vedas? Buddha Nature is being described in the line reading: "Whose colour, form and appearance is not known". As Buddha Nature is beyond language, the Agamas are unable to explain it. The fourth couplet:
Of whom shall I ask the question? Like the moon's image reflected in the water, it is neither true nor false-" The "who" that the yogin wants to ask the question of is the non-self, so who Is there to ask the question of? The final line reads: ''That which remains to be grasped", which is the thought that is arises. It then continues to say "... taken without indication of direction" which is the non-attachment to thought, so then the practitioner does not move in any direction.
9. cARYA TECIRTY: The Rising Moon
a. Part one: About the author: Bhusuku Robinson expresses that Bhusuku was renowned for his auspicious character, and this kstg-a monk was asked to join the N a l a n d ~monastery during the reign of
Devapala (ca. 8 10-850 CE). His first instruction was the holy mantra of MaCjuSri, A-
RA-BA-TSA-NA, which was bestowed upon him personally by MaiijuSri (Robinson 145). TZran&thaYs account of Bhusuku is not very detailed. However, his exposition of
another Siddhscharya, ~ ~ n t i d e vmatches a, Robinson's translations (Templeman, Seven Instruction Lineages 215-6). Oddly, Robinson gives Bhusuku the name ~ ~ n t i d e vand a , T ~ r a n H t h adoesn't mention this Mahzsiddha at all.
b. Part Two: Textual Studies and translation raga mallZ,ri/ bhusukupadangm 1) karunsa meha nirantara phariZi / bhsbsbhsba dvandala daliya // 2) uittzb gaaaqa mSjh8 adaghuz / pekha re bhusuku sahaja sarua // 3) jZsu sunanteC t u t u i indigla / nihae nia mana de ulala // 4) bisaa biSuddhi ma7 bujhia Hnande gaaqaha jima ujoli cznde // 5 ) e tailoe etabi s%rad/ joi bhusuku p h e t a ~andhalczrz //
" Muk: ' karuna .' Sen utilizes Munidatta's rendition 'uie.'
PK states that this word is very difficult to read as it appears in the Sastri text. There are differences in the transliteration of the word. 'Sunante' is the reading given by both
Moj and Muk. PK and Sha both give 'munante' and Sen reads 'gunante,' which PK states is supported by the text of the ASB. This line has many renditions of this compound sentence.
c. Translations: 1. The cloud of compassion always pervades.
Being and non-being are smashed.' 2. Something mysterious has arisen in the middle of the sky. Behold Oh Bbusuku, the essence of Sahaja. 3. The illusion is broken by whomever understands (the deceitfblness of the sense organs). Your own mind silent1J revels in bliss. 4. Through this bliss I have realised the purity of the sences? Just as the sky is brightened by the moon. 5. In these three worlds this is indeed the essence, The yogin Bhusuku dispels the darkness.
PK translates this part as dispelling two opposite beings. The others translate this as "crushed." 2
This word can be translated in a various ways. PK and Muk translate it as "silently," whereas Sen uses "deep" and Sha prefers "in solitude."
3 Moj inserts the word 'visayas' here, meaning; "...The defiling principle of objectivity"
1. The cloud of compassioni always pervades.ii Being and non-being are smashed."' PK: Makes note of Munidatta's text; "...i.e. being and non-being...being dispelled, the purified Body-of-Enjoyment of the Yogin shines forth by the grace of the Guru" (192).
" PK: Renders this as 'dispels', which indicates that it is fiee form its own being (192). -.-
"' PK: The false idea of subject and object (192). 2. Something mysteriousi bas arisen in the middle of the sky..."
Behold O h Bhusuku, the essence of Sahaja.
PK: Yuganaddha (192).
" PK: n
e Clear Light, which by the grace of the Guru, which is in the Third Bliss (192).
-Munidatta: Believes that the moon is 'prabhasvara' (PK 49), which is "...clear, shrill
(as a voice)" (Monier-Williams 684). 3. The illusioni is brokeniiby whoever understands (the deceitfulness of the sense
organs). Your own mind silentlyiiirevels in bliss. PK: This is the mass of sense-faculties (192). PK notes that in Bengali, this word would
which PK be a true homonym (having both concrete and an abstract etym~logy)~ considers to be very apparent. The word in Bengali is 'indizla'. One meaning that could be derived £?om it would be "optical illusionyy(fiom the Tibetan commentary, 'indra-j81a7). The other is the aforementioned "mass of sense-faculties", which is the one that is given in Munidatta's commentary (fiom 'indriya-j Sla') (55). " PK:
The simultaneouslyarisen Bliss (192).
PK: The forrn of absence of discursive-thought (192).
4. Through this bliss.' I have realized" the purity of the senses, Just as the sky is brightened by the moon."'
PK: This is the Bliss of Cessation (192).
" PK: Bliss Supreme (192). ... "I
PK: This represents sahajsnanda (49).
5. In these three worlds this is indeed the substance, The yogin Bhusuku dispels the darkness.
e. Mahzmudra depictions in
The simile of the " s y ' as MahBmudra, 'Changdescribes, is generally depicted as "cloudless" (Chang 38)- However, in this CaryTi the first line reads: The cloud of compassion always pervades. Being and non-being are smashed-
This would seemingly indicate bodhisattva compassion, that results in the destruction of the dualistic ideal of "being and non-being." For, the following line continues the simile: Something mysterious has arisen in the middle of the sky. Behold Oh Bhusuku, the essence of Sahaja. Clearly, the c'mysterious" something that has arisen in the sky is M a h ~ m u d r aWhich, . as the song continues to state, is the essence of Sahaja. By realizing this, the practitioner experiences bliss. Yet another simile for the realization of, M a h ~ m u d r ais the metaphor of Light dispelling the darkness, which the forth line mentions: Through this bliss I have realized the purity of the senses, Just as the sky is brightened by the moon. The significance of the moon is tied in with the cakras and the howledge of prajfiL.
10. CARYATHRITY-SEVEN: An Experience of the Innate
a. Part one: About the author: TeakapZ There is no mention of TB~akapZ in either the Blue Annals, Tgranatha, or in Robinson. Shahidullah confirms this and adds that Pandita RBhula Samk~tyayana speculates that T B F ( d ) a k a p may ~ have been accidentally misread as N~dakapHda. However, Shahidullah continues, in Munidatta's Tibetan reading his name is shown as Tzrakapz, therefore, it could be simply that T c a k a p z was a late writer (Sha x).
b. Part Two: Textual Studies and translation
1) apane nLh? moa kzheri Sa&Z / tl mahzmuderi tutib geli sankzC // 2) anubhaba sahaja rn& bhola re joid/
caiikottie bimuka joiso taiso hoi' // 3) jaysane achilesig taisanah acchai/ sahaja pithakaj joi bhznti m3hok b ~ s a / / 4) bgnda liurunda santZre j ~ n ~ / b ~ k p a t h a t i t akithi b a k h a g / / 5) bhaqai tH;aka ethu nghi a b a k S a / jo bujhai t H gale g a l a p ~ s a / /
" Sen and PK transliterate this as 'mo',
which is supported by the Tibetan texts (PK 219).
The other three prefer 'so. ' Muk states that Sen's emendation is not preferable, even if Sen's reading stems Eom the Sanskrit (Muk 149). Thus the particle 'mo' would be
inherent in the word 'apane,' which Muk states refers to the poet himself and is perfectly clear %om the rest of the CaryEgiti. Furthermore, if 'so' is emended, Muk states that the 'ta' from the next sentence needs to be emended. This is clear &om the commentary 'Yadidanim mama ... mahamudrasiddhivancha duram palayita cay'(Mu k 149).
Both Muk and Moj read this as 'liamkha.' Muk states that this is taken fkom Munidatta's comrnentq. Sen: 'jonga' Sen: 'caiikoyi' 'sen: 'hoiqga' Sha: 'icchalesa.' Tibetan text supports this reading (PK 2 19). Although, 'achilesi' is much more preferable. Muk: 'taichana'
Sha: '8ca.' Sen says it is a possibility.
'Muk presents the following argument for 'pit haka' as opposed to 'pat haka' (149150). The Tibetan text supports 'patha-,' and PK, Moj, and Sha agree with this reading.
However, the commentary supports the ASB text. Muk deems this to be a rather unusual context because usually the commentary and the Tibetan are in agreement, and in this case they are not. Muk continues by saying that if 'pathaka' is accepted, then the s u f i , 'ka' should become genitive not accusative. Muk stands by 'pithakaybecause it is as it appears in the original Bengali.
'Moj :'nahi' c. Translations:
1. I myself have no existence: who am I af?aid of? The desire for Mahgmudra has been torn asunder. 2. Do not forget, 0 Yogin, the experience of Sahaja, It is free fi-omthe four categories. 3. As you were,' thus you remain. Do not: 0 Yogin, commit any error in regards to the Sahaja path.
4. The penis and testicles3are known by the fer~yman.~ How can that which is beyond the course of speech be explained? 5. Says T8raka; "Here there is no occasion. Whoever understands this has a noose around his neck."
Sha: " Desired." Sen: " The Innate is different."
PK: "The maimed and the mutilated." 4
There is a debate whether or not to render this as "ferryman" or "to swim" or
1. I myself have no existence:' whoiiam I afraid of? The desire for MahHmudra has been torn asunder."'
PK: In Munidatta's rendition there is a prelude to this Line that reads; "By the grace of the dust of the feet of the Guru and by the means of the Word of the TathHgata..."
(PK 218). Furthermore, the "no self' is based on the consideration of one's own body.
These are the incidental m a a s of the personality components, hindrances and
death (PK 21 8). -.-
"' PK: In the absence of false ideas ( 218). 2. Do not forget, 0 Yogin, the experience of Sahaja, It is free from the four categories.'
Moj: These are the four Vikalpas. He lists them; 'sat,' (real or existent); 'asat,' (unreal or non-existent); 'sadasar' (both real and unreal); 'na sat na asat,' (neither real nor unreal). The Sahaja yogin interprets the world in the light four Vikalpas (76). 3. As you were,' thus you remain." Do not, 0 Yogin, commit any error in regards to the Sahaja path.ii'
PK: This is the Mahisuka as experienced through the Vajra holder's ernbrace of Nairgtmayg (2 18).
" PK: It is made steadfast by the Vajra gum (182). -Moj: Believes that when a being is born, it is fkee f?om sorrow and fiom happiness, and there are no feelings (as the mind does not function at that time). As beings grow up, they face delusions, and then get entangled in a snare of misconception and suffering (77)--.
PK: Reads ...[the] Simultaneously arisen (Bliss) is separate". The yogin wanders about
In the state of rebirth without fear like a lion (218). 4. The penis and testicles are known by the ferryman. How can that which is beyond the course of speechi be explained?"
PK: This is beyond external things having the characteristics of self-experiencing (218). "
Moj: States that physical pleasures and their sources can be detected and explained. However, since Mahzssuka cannot be described, it is incomprehensible (218).
5. Says TZraka; ere' there is no occasion." Whomever understandsiiithis has a noose around his neck."" PK: This is the dharma (2 18). "
PK: There is no occasion for fools (2 18).
-Moj: Those who are not yogins, do not have the opportunity to experience Sahaja-bliss.
He observes that 'avakM' has a dual meaning, "recess" and ccopportunity"(2 18). --.
"' PK: Even to those who knows the absolute truth (218). " PK: " Ifthey say:
'We have understood the dharma', then they are bound by the noose
in samsara" (2 18). -Moj: Translates the Bengali as, "a rope around the neck." He means that "....even he who has experienced supreme bliss, is hopelessly is unable to explain the nature of it, and so, fie upon him!"
e. Mahimudra depictions in sandhabhs~a
It is generally understood by the masters that when the practitioner has the desire to , are clinging to this notion. The first line reads: realize M a h ~ m u d r athey
I myself have no existence: who am I afraid of? The desire for Mahzmudra has been torn asunder. The selfhaving no existence is indicative of the understanding of non-dual nature. Therefore the desire for achieving Mahzmudra has been destroyed. The second Line reads: Do not forget, 0 Yogin, the experience of Sahaja, It is fiee from the four categories. As was mentioned above, the four categories are: exists, does not exist, both exist and both are non-existent. These arguments are based upon NzgZrjuna's treatise. The second meaning of this Line indicates that Sahaja goes beyond M ~ d h y a m i k aand scholars knowledge. The third line: As you were, thus you remain. Do not, 0 Yogin, commit any error in regards to the Sahaja path. Refers to both Buddha Nature and the ordinary mind. Buddha Nature remains constant within the practitioner. Chang explains that the ordinary mind has escaped &om the notions of subject-object, and from thought of "accept this" and "reject that." Once this is achieved, the practitioner must maintain this level. By keeping the mind and body loose and gentle, this is achieved. However, there is a delicate balance to these actions,
- one must not abandon all activities to achieve this. Rather, these activities should be accomplished in a smooth, relaxed and spontaneous manner (Chang 39). The fifth couplet reads:
Says Tlraka; "Here there is no occasion. Whoever understands this has a noose around his neck." "Here" refers to the D h a r m a k ~ y awhich , on no single occasion can be isolated.
11. CARYATEIIRTY-EIGHT: Paddling and towing a boat
a. Part one: About the author: Saraha Saraha is perhaps one of best known of the Siddhscaryas. Tgranztha names Saraha as being the initial BcHrya of the first lineage of Mahlmudra. Vajrayogini, who appeared in the guise of a barmaid, initiated him. After leaving his Brahman background, he joined a Buddhist monastery. Here he gained M e r instruction fkom Sthavira KHla. The upldyzya (the abbot or professor) of Saraha acquired his knowledge &om ABvagho~a(Templeman, Seven Instruction Lineages 2). After some , many of the previously mentioned time he became the up8dySya of N I l a n d ~where Zcharya attained their instruction. He expounded the doctrine far and wide. In The BA,
Saraha7sname is mentioned in connection with many masters. It seems his teachings influenced a various practitioners, of which there are many citations. BA concurs with TZrangtha is stating that Saraha has the honour of being the first to introduce the path
of M a h ~ m u d r a(BA 841). Guenther aptly states that, as is the case with Indian history, there are not very many records that state anything about Saraha. However, the sheer number of times he is referred to indicates his importance (Guenther, The Royal Sone of Saraha 3). Guenther explains that there are many discrepancies in the various "biographies" of Saraha. Some state that he was born in south India, others say in Beneras. Historically, the accounts vary, naming kings ranging from MahZipSla to RatnapHIa to CandapBla, none of which Guenther believes were a part of the great PHla dynasty. Guenther also mentions that Saraha begot his name fkom the dakip arrow makers who taught him. This point is absent in Robinson's retelling (Guenther, The Roval Song of Saraha 6).
Saraha's popularity could be for two reasons, the teaching of the cycle of the three Dohas seem to have had a great impact upon the society of the time. Also, Saraha was taught by women and brought to awakenment by a woman. Although there are many other cases where this has happened with a founding father, Saraha's seems to be the most prominent. Furthermore, the Annals state that the place where Saraha learned his teachings was in the country of Dharmasanja in OddiyHna (BA 1039).
b. Part Two: Textual Studies and translation
1) kZa nZbayi kh8ndia mana keyu~la/ sadaguru baane dhara patablla// 2) cia thira kari dharahu re nzhib/ ana upsye pzra Fa jZiic// 3) naubzhi nauks t&ndadgunel meli melae sahajE j8u na znE// 4) bztata bhaa khZintabiEbalal/ bhaba ulolii 9ababig b o l i ~ / / 5) kula la? khare sonteh ujZia/ saraha bhaqa? gaanE samzei//
Sha: 'n8?gaY,the above is in the original script.
Sha: 'jsnga'. Sen: 'tagua'. Muk states that this is fkom the ASB manuscript, this could be scribal error. The Tibetan and the Sanskrit support the above transliteration.
Muk thinks that this transliteration is preferable, although 'meli meli' is the one suggested by the Tibetan text.
'Sen: 'ksqtabi', the above is supported by all others and the Sanskrit. Sen: 'bisaa'.
Moj and PK: 'karasonte'.
' PK and Moj: 'samHaY,this stems f?om the Tibetan, which could also be interpreted as 'samadhi' (PK 225). c. Translations:
1. The body is a small boat, the mind1 is the oar, Hold firmly the heh? of the wise guru's instruction. 2. Having made steady the heart-mind, hold3 the boat steady, By no other means can one reach the shore. 3. The boatsman tows his boat by a rope; , ~ is no other way. One must unite with ~ a h a j athere 4. On the way there are dangers; the highwaymen are strong, All sentient beings are destroyed by the tidal wave of beco~ning.~ 5. Following the bank, it pushes against the upstream current, Saraha says: " It enters the sky." Both Moj and Sha add the adjective " pure" to "mind". 2
Muk: "sail". Sha: " rudder". There are several variations in the translation of this word. Sen has " take out", Sha "keep the boat", and Moj "steer". Both Muk and PK, as is given above, support the general meaning.
There are various translations of this phrase, Sen, Moj and Muk all read this as uniting with the Sahaja. Although Sha does read the union with the Sahaja in his translation,
he, like PK, also sees that there is an "abandonment" in this passage. Sha abandons the boat and PK abandons something unknown- PK derives this meaning fi-om 'meli
meli' (as he reads it), stating that 'mel' means "to discard" (224).
Sen reads this as "... in the tornado of existence". Sha adds the metaphor of "drowning", rather than ccsubrnerged"or "destroyed".
1. The body is a small boat,' the mind is the oar," EIold firmly the helm of the wise guru's instruction."'
' PK: This is the consciousness of the mind (222). -Munidatta believes the body to be bodhicitta (PK 44). I'
Munidatta states that the oars are, "mano-vijiiznarp kenipiitam" (PK 44). Munidatta comments that "sadguru-vacanaq patab81am9' (PK 44).
2. ~ a v i nmade ~ ' steady the heart-mind," hold the boatiiisteady, By no other means can one reach the shore."
' PK: This is the union of the Vajra and the lotus in the middle of the ocean of existence
" PK: The bodhicitta, purified and without attributes, having the nature of the Five-fold Gnosis (222). *- *
"' PK: The boat is the body (222). -Munidatta states kzya-nau (PK 44). iV
PK: This is the ocean of existence, and Nirvzna (223).
3. The boatsman tows his boat by a rope;' One must unite with Sahaja, there is no other way."
' PK: These could also be good qualities, as supported by the Tibetan text (222). " PK: Reads; ...having abandoned (the boat), go without effort." Which he takes to "
mean that one goes instantly to the island of MahSsuka, without effort in the Sahaja (223). 4. On the wayi there a r e dangers; the highwaymenii are strong,
All sentient beings are destroyed by the tidal wave of becoming."'
PK: The avadhiiti (223).
" PK: Sun and Moon (23). "' PK: The Sun and Moon in every respect is like the NairHtma dharma, which is submerged in the wave of the sense objects in the ocean of existence (223). -Munidatta believes the wave to be "bhava-samudra-vi~aya-ullola" (PK 44).
5. Following the bank,' it pushes against the upstream current, Saraha says: '' It enters the skyv."
' PK: The bank is also the 'avadhiiti'. Munidatta comments; "prahti pariddhs avadhiit iks" (PK 44).
-Munidatta also comments that " [email protected] yasyam avadhfitysm layam gacchati". This is artificial etymology (57).
" Munidatta takes 'gaaqe ' to be " vaimalya-cakra-dvipa" (PK 49). e. MahZmudra depictions in sandhabhz~s This Carya is addressing the importance of receiving instructions fiom a guru. The body is a small boat, the mind is the oar, Hold firmly the helm of the wise guru's instruction.
Chang stresses this, as the purpose of Mahamudra initiation is to make the practitioner recognize the ordinary mind (Chang 3 7).
The next tine states: Having made steady the heart-rnind, hold the boat steady, By no other means can one reach the shore. Both the body and mind have been made steady, which indicates that they are in a relaxed state. The shore is also symbolic as it represents awakening. The third couplet
reads "The boatsman tows his boat by a rope", which is the yogi working with his body. "One must unite with Sahaja" is the union of the yogi with Buddha Nature. Couplet four: On the way there are dangers; the highwaymen are strongy A11 sentient beings are destroyed by the tidal wave of becoming The phrase "highwayman", stands for the ''sun and the moony'(upzya and prajiig), which are strong. These qualities are submerged in the '%wave of existence".
Conversely, cchighwaymen'y could stand for attachments. Due to these attachments, all beings are detroyed. The final couplet: Following the bank, it pushes against the upstream current, Saraha says: " It enters the sky." Is indicative of the bodhicitta flowing up through the c k a s and nerve passages. The final line is again using the "sky" metaphor to represent the achievement of
Mahzmudra. The flow of M a h ~ m u d r ais going against the flow of samsgra, i.e. up the current. The "sky" metaphor can also represent the DharmakZya.
CARYATHRTY-NINE: A Hapless Householder
a. About The Author: Saraha
See CaryZi thirty-eight
b. Part Two: Textual Studies and translation
1) suinga hab a b i d l raareC niamana tohorg dose/ guru baana b i h a g re t h a i b a tai ghundad kaise// 2) akata hit bhabae g a a n ~ / bangeFjZyH nilesi pareg bhzgelah tohorai binaqa// 3) adbhua bhaba mohl re disai para apya&/ e jaga jalabirnbFdi8re sahajG suna apana// 4) amiak BcchantE bisa gilesi re cia para basa apH/ gharZ pare kH bujhilel mam re khHiba mai dutha kuqubl// 5) saraha bhananti bara suna gohali lcimo duthan balande/ ekelE jagan%iao re biharahii svacchgndg//
" Muk prefers to read this as 'suina'.
This stems fiom the Tibetan which Muk renders as;
"...the hands of Sfinyath are extended" (see Cary5 thirty-six (a)). PK states that Munidatta's 'suiniZ7 and 'svapne' elucidates Sastri's usage of 'sui~H'as 'supnaY(dream).The Tibetan text suggests 'suna' (Void). PK believes that the reading of 'bihare' as Baggchi defines it "spread [as in arms]", is incorrect (228). Even though, as PK acknowledges, Baggchi's reading is indeed possible, considering the Tibetan Munidatta translation. However, it seems more likely that it should read as "tear to pieces, scatter." PK does not agree with Sha's reading of this line, and instead amends and uses Sen's. PK explains that 'tohorE7, in Tibetan, is connected to becnia mana' in genitive. However, nia mana' is a vocative, thereby causing the confbsion in the translation of the line.
PK omits 'haY.
The f i s t two lines in this C a r y are ~ very corrupt. PK prefers to take Munidatta's Tibetan text and attempt to get a coherent reading of these two lines. From the Tibetan
PK reads 'suine abhiyzraa re' (227). Another variance amongst these authors are the break the words, for example; Sen 'nia-manay, Muk 'niamana', PK and Sha 'nia mana' .
PK: 'puna'. This he determines &om the Tibetan 'slar sdob'.
P K makes an interesting note in his work. He notes that although 'bange' generally does mean "crooked" or "false", it can also mean, "bend in the river". This is derived
from the Tibetan text and the use of 'jZyZ9.PK also notes that the Tibetan is incorrectly transcribed, as the meaning is altered to read "Your delusive appearances are various"
Muk chooses the alternate reading &om Shastri, of 'pare'.
Sen offers an alternative: 'bh8ngagela9.
' Sen and Muk: 'tohsra'. j PK
and Sha: 'ap+H9.
Sen: 'amifi'. Muk: 'amiyZY.
' Muk: 'bujhjhile'. PK: 'bujj hile'.
" Sen and Sha: 'mo'. " Sen: 'duttha'.
Sha: 'nZsia7 fkom the ASB.
1. As if in a dream, Oh my mind, your attachment to unawareness is your own fault,' Without the pleasure of the Guru's word how can you thus remain a wayfarer of ~nawareness?~ 2. Oh wondrous and strange, the sky domain arises from "HUM", In ~eng,al?you have taken a wife, your consciousness4 has escaped to the other shore. 3. Oh strange are the delusions of existence, it appears as other and self, This world is as transient as a bubble of water, the self is void by the ~ahaja.' 4. The nectar that you swallow is actually poison, Oh my heart-mind, in the perception of others, you appear as self; Oh what have you understood at home and abroad, 1 shall devour wicked kith and kin. 5. Saraha says: " Better an empty cowshed- what use have I of a vicious oxen? Oh! Alone destroying the world- I roam at my own will." 1
PK does not agree with Sha's reading of this line as " even dream is on account of your fault of ignorance." Instead, with some misgivings, PK accepts Sen's translation Sha and Sen both render 'bih&rB7as "monastery". PK does not believe that this is a very probable reading and instead renders it as "ignorance." Muk agrees with neither of these meanings and translates this as enjoyment" (195). "
Sen leaves this as reading as 'Vanga'. Unlike the others, it seems that Sen believes that this is a part of Bengal and not Bengal itself. Sen leaves the reading as 'vijnZina', which is the Sanslait equivalent of 'binana'. Sha translates this as " science", Moj believe that this is the name of a robber (Moj 78). It seems that PK has gleaned that the Tibetan reading is actually" like a recollection in water" (228).
1. As if in a dream, Oh my mind, your attachment to unawareness is your own fault, Without the pleasure of the Guru's word' how can you thus remain a wayfarer of unawareness?
' PK: Reads; "...(but)
through the spreading forth of the word of the Guru, how shall you
remain (thus in ignorance)?" The "spreading forth" of the Guru's word are the three worlds (PK 226).
-Muk: You cannot attain Sahaja unless a Master instructs you (79). 2. Oh wondrous and strange, the sky domain arises from "HUM",' In ~ e n ~ a lyou , " have taken a wife,"' your consciousness has escaped to the other shore." --
PK: "By the grace of the lotus feet of the Guru, you have effortlessly been understood
by me, 0 Mind-King, to have arisen fkom the seed syllable 'HUM' and to have entered the... Clear Light" (226).
-Moj: Reads 'HUM' as "roar". He notes that 'HUM' has a "...temble and black ... appearance". 'HUM' is the seed syllable for the Vajra Buddha and his consort (79).
" PK: Places a question mark beside this word in his reading (226). -Moj: Reads this as 'Vanga', which he translates as "robber" (79). iii
PK: Nairztrna, the inherent fault of ignorance being destroyed (226).
-Moj: Nairztrna (79). iv
PK: Nairgtma destroys your mental disturbances, once these have been destroyed the practitioner can reach NirvZna (226).
3. Oh strange are the delusions of existence,' it appears as other and self," ... This world is as transient as a bubble of water, the self is void by the Sahaja."'
PK: For those who believe that they are in existence, it is strange, due to their lack of understanding of their own nature (226).
" PK: It appears as the distinction between self and other (227). ---
"' PK: Reads; "naturally"
4. The nectari that you swallow is actually poison,ii Oh my heart-mind, in the perceptioniii of others, you appear as self; Oh what have you understood a t homeivand abroad, I shall devour wicked kith and kin.' PK: Sahaja (227). ii
PK: Subduing the sense organs (227)-
declares this to be a pseudo-homonym, the common reading would be "poison",
but the alternative reading would be fiom 'vi~aya',meaning "sense objects" (56). -Munidatta: riipsgdi-visaya (PK 52).
"' PK: The perception of the karma and senses (227). " PK:
The body (227).
'PK: Render themselves fiee fiom desire, hate, ignorance and so forth (227). 5. Saraha says: '' Better an empty co\vshedi- What use have I of a vicious oxen?" Oh! Alone destroying the world - I roam a t my own ~vill.""
PK: Void body (227).
" PK: The Mind-King (227). This has a false etymology, the alternative meaning by Munidatta is " v i ~ y a mbalam dadEti it?' (PK 58). -..
"' PK: Believes the "alone" implies the "vile ox" (or the 'Rlind-King"), that destroys the three worlds (227). " PK:
'Due to the Grace of the Guru" (227).
6. Although humanity is present, the fool doesn't find it.' Within the milkii fat there is no cream to be seen, PK: Perhaps "it" is Bliss (239).
" Moj: As cream is hidden in milk, just as non-existence (abhgva) is hidden in existence
7. In this world, no one goes or comes here, Such nature enjoys KSqhila, a yogi.i
PK: By knowing the "own-being" of existence (239).
e. MahZmudra depictions in sandhabhaga This Caryg also address the importance of instruction and the guru's word. The second line begins with: Oh wondrous and strange, the sky domain arises from ""HUP$"
This is representative of the Maharnudra rising fiom the bija syllable ''HUQI". Like "EVAIV~''~ "HUM" is an essential syllable in meditation. This particular line is speaking in reference to meditative procedures to achieve Mahgmudra. Also, the "skf' metaphor has once again been utilized i.e. Dharmakzya. The second couplet reads: Oh wondrous and strange, the sky domain arises from ""HUM', In Bengal, you have taken a wife, your consciousness has escaped to the other shore. Although he lives in conventionality, his mind is liberated and resides in the non-dual. The fourth couplet The nectar that you swallow is actually poison, Oh my heart-mind, in the perception of others, you appear as self; Oh what have you understood at home and abroad, I shall devour wicked kith and kin. The "nectar" could refer to the Brahman soma, and the ccpoisony' indicates that the practices of the Brahmans that tie the practitioner to samsgra. "The perception of others"
are those who dwell in duality, such as the Brahmins. "Understanding at home and
abroad" is a reference to the learning at home or in the forest schools. The "devouring" of
"kith and kin" is the transcendence of the Brahmanic way and removing desires. The
h a 1 couplet speaks of the cowsheds: Saraha says: " Better an empty cowshed- what use have I of a vicious oxen? Oh! Alone destroying the world - I roam at my own will."
The "empty cowshed" is telling the practitioner that it is better to realize Siinyat lthan to keep sacred cows. Finally, the line about "destroyingthe world" is the destruction of
VII. Conclusion This thesis intended to demonstrate the multivariant levels of interpretation and in particular to draw out the Buddha Nature aspect in selected CaryHs. This investigation was limited by the restrictio~splaced upon this paper, so it was only able to briefly touch upon the many important issues. It was established that the main intent behind the practice of tsntra is to try and achieve the goal of awakenrnent. The methods of attaining this level are diverse. The Mahsyma tenets embraced the path of actualization through various practices and attitudes. However, Mahlygna ultimately became too focused on the 'Yheoretical and metaphysical" and the effort that was needed for people to realize the awakened state became superfluous. A chasm between practitioners and scholars arose, which created an opening for the development of Vajrayzna. As Vajraylna was not wholly independent fiom MahZyLna, a condensed exploration of the origins of MahZySna and how it developed into VajrayHna and tgntric Buddhist practice has been briefly outlined. The main differentiation lies in ,
praxis, such as the concepts of SEnyat~, upzya, karun8, and the triksya. SfinyatZ is important because the realization that all dharmas are changing, and therefore are empty, is an essential doctrine. As all dharrnas are empty, the Madhyamaka view holds that all
things are therefore empty of inherent existence. They have no essence and are thereby only relative. Inherent existence is the misconception that all things are causally independent, which results in a grasping of objects and ideas. sii.nyatz generates prajdZ, which is symbolized by the female principles.
Furthermore this wisdom/female principle guides the male principle, which is upZya, the
active force of k a r q z . Upsya, the ccrneans"or "skilfulness in helping others" towards awakenment, and karuqZ, the "compassion" that is practiced towards all sentient beings. Both genders must actualize that they are representatives of upsya and prajiiTi, and that their physical, mental and intellectual union is the catalyst that induces the experience of the highest truth. This union is the centrepiece of some tZntric practices. The triligya or three Buddha bodies, is what Mahsyzna and VajrayZna hold out as the Buddha essence manifesting. These three bodies are the Dharma-kwa, the Sambhoga-k~ya,and the Nirm~na-kzya.The most essential is the Dharma-ksya, which is often interpreted as Mahzmudra. These three teachings form the basis of many of the teachings of tZntra. Furthennore an exploration of ritual and methodology was utilized to understand how t z n t r a is conducted. By the methods of mantras, mudras, and mandalas, beginning levels of tHntra is understood. Each of these methods is carried forward into the higher levels of practice, and where they are understood on a superior level, and used
to achieve the hi&er levels of tsntra. The modes of mantra employed in the CaryEis commonly are the bija mantras. These monosyllabic utterances represent various concepts, such as the use of the word "evalp" used in CaryZi nine. Once these bija mantras are employed, the practitioner will findthat they have come closer to Sfinvats (the 'ultimate void'). Mudrz is customarily fingers and hand gestures, which, in part, aids with the achievement of awakenment. This includes the position of limbs and posture, vital breath and implements utifised during rituals. Just as m a n t r a is the epitome of esoteric sounds, mudrz demonstrates the secret seals (i-e. gestures, posture, and consorts) involved in the
s s d h a n a Mudra interpreted as c'seal'7, as it often is in Vajrayzna, is treated not as the static physical act, rather, as the dynamic act of "sealingy7that becomes the focus. The dynamic element lies in the connection with the one making the seal. In the tantric Buddhist case this would be either the authentic self, who is the psychological dimension, or the inner mentor, which is the personal dimension. The familiar depiction of mandala is the traditional drawings of the dornains of the Buddhas that Tibetan monks create on the floor with sand- The symbolic meaning behind m a ~ d a l aas , suggested by Snellgrove, takes its root in the magical arts, as the circle represents the separation of a sacred area fiom mundane We. An example of the usage of locution to represent a mandala within the Caryas is 'Evam'. It has two very important bijas (seed syllables), 'e' and 'vam', which, during the Gupta era, were depicted as two triangles. 'E' pointed downwards and 'vam' pointed upwards. Furthermore they are symbols for wisdom and means, and the mandala created by the union of these two bijas depicts a state of great bliss.
The most important concept, which appeared in many aspects of this investigation, is MahTirnudra. It is believed to be the purest and most total state of realising bodhicitta. The mind resides in the three Buddha bodies, and through the union of the Sahaja (innate), and spontaneous accomplishment, Mahgmudra can equate s a m s k a with nirvgna, without discrimination, thereby achieving the Supreme Bliss.
The emphasis is upon the state of naturalness that Mahzmudra strives for. There should be no extraneous effort put forth to attain awakenment, as it leads to attachment. More commonly, MahZmudrZ is translated as the "Great Seal". The "great" refers to the simultaneously arisen bliss, and the "seal" refers to GiinyatZ of Stinyath. It can also be
simply regarded as Siinyats, which is the great bliss because the phenomena never changes from the state of lacking inherent existence. As Siinyatz is the nature of all phenomena, and direct meditative realisation of it leads to awakenment, it is referred to as "seal". M a h ~ m u d r ais often seen as Buddha Nature. In Sanskrit Iiterature, this is often depicted as the tathggatagarbha. The tathagatagarbha is complete, and is not a potential to be developed, for it is Iike the Buddha himself. It is surrounded by the kleias of greed, desire, anger and stupidity. These kleSas are said to reside in the body, and are the degrading actions that bind us to saqszra. In Vajraylna, the appellations used are Mahsmudra, Mahzsukha, and Sahaja. Mahamudra, as was previously mentioned, is
an essential concept in Vajrayzna. Mahzsukha, literally means the Great Bliss. The imagery around this metaphor usually depicts the male as upgya and the female as prajiis. Mahzsukha is the ecstasy that arises fiom the union of these two components. From this harmonious conjunction, awakenment is attained, even if only for a brief moment. Sahaja is the Intrinsic Nature that abides in the practitioner, and this ideology maintains that practitioner will realise awakening in the natural way. For example in HinaySna, sexual activities are forbidden, for the b h i k ~ u sand bhiksunis should live austere lives. Those who abide by the Sahaja theory believe that this induces undue strain upon the practitioner. Rather than suppressing human nature, those who follow this
ideology believe that whatever is natural, whichever is the easiest, is the most straightforward path to awakenment.
The C a r y ~ that s have selected for analysis have m u l t i f ~ o u meanings. s There is the blatant meaning, which reflects the life and culture at the time. This meaning often tells a simple tale of the lower castes going about their daily lives. The second level of meaning is the Mother tBntra level. Here the ritual methods are described, explaining the flow of the semen, the flow of the bodhicitta, and which cakras are effected in what
way. The third level, is the M a h m u d r a level, which explains to the highest level of practitioners how to uncover the innate Buddha and maintain that level of awakenment. It was seen that these higher methods are hidden symbolically within the song, which is commonly known as sandhabhZsE. There are various definitions for "sandhabhZsZ9', and although the translations seem to denote similar meanings, in fact the meanings are in discord with each other. The most commonly known translation is the one that is rendered by Sastri, that of "twilight language." The majority of the experts upon the Caryas concur that there is a dual level of meaning within the songs. Seemingly straightforward passage contains a myriad of Tantric Code Language. A comparison of the anuyoga interpretations has been presented. Furthermore, the sandhabhasa has been investigated for Mahsmudra meanings, as was previously mentioned. All of the aforementioned elements are critical in the comprehension the various levels of the understanding of Buddha Nature within these selected Carya. As was depicted in the various sections of the translations, the levels of meanings are indeed diverse. The most common theme that appeared in the readings &om the Mahzmudra perspective was to release the notions of duality, and then the practitioner can realize Mahzmudra. The anuyogalMother tHntra level was fairly instructional. It spoke of the
cakras and bija mantras and other parts of ritual practice. The b Iatant meaning was obvious in the translation section of the investigation. In conclusion it can be said that the various levels of interpretation were investigated in this thesis, and that three clear levels are presented. The blatant, the anuyoga/Mother level, and Mahzmudra.
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This research aims to address the issue of occupational aspirations and attitudes of the young people towards the agricultural sector and a career in agriculture in Brunei. Brunei's history of a rich oil and gas country has made it possible to 'leap-
Page #. List of Figures, xxx. List of Tables. Introduction subheads ...? Methods subheads ...? Results subheads ...? Discussion subheads ...? Conclusion .... Is there material that does not contribute to one of the elements listed above? If so, this
to refocus my graphics research on digital photography. A Stanford Birdseed Grant provided .... a Photograph's Light Field. 23. . Sampling of a photograph's light field provided by a plenoptic camera . ..... photographic science and art, and it lov
b) Chemistry. c). Medicine. Chapter IV. The education and cultural interests of the apothecary. Chapter V. The status and social position of the apothecary. 7. The conclusion. 8. ..... his point he cites the case Ã¶f Philip of Gloucester in the late
is mentioned or used in writing. The mearuing of this statement is: "May Allah be pleased with him." maslahah. = Consideration of public interest sadd zaraah. = ...... strengthening their opinion and eliminating doubt on the sufficiency of dalil; con
HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A Project work submitted to the DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS P.K.N. ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGE .... NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following objectives: To provide a consistent object-oriented programming env
5 The distinction between POstmodernism and postmodernity has been made by various thinkers, including Eagleton and Jameson, ...... Forderung der Prenzlauer-Berg-Szene und der Kreuzberger, 'Nie wieder ...... 1 Quoted in Friedrich, 'Die Räuber fackeln